Tess of the d’Urbervilles is a novel by Thomas Hardy, first published in 1891. The novel, which is considered one of the most important works in English literature today, received mixed and sometimes contradictory feedback at the time of its first publication due to its challenge to the norms and frameworks of its time. The story of this work depicts a dying rural community and introduces the most attractive and tragic female character in Hardy’s works to the audience. In fact, Tess was the most important of all the characters created by Thomas Hardy. Tess is caught between two lives and two men: Alec Dorberwell, a young, rich, and immoral man who seduces Tess into a remote forest, and Angel Clare, his conservative, moralistic, and vindictive husband.
Tess of the d’Urbervilles is a novel by Thomas Hardy, an English author. The book was first serialized and censored by the illustrated graphic newspaper in 1981 and then in 1892 as a book. Although the novel is now considered one of the leading novels of nineteenth-century England and possibly Hardy’s masterpiece, Tess initially received mixed reviews, one of which was the challenge to sexual morality in the late Victorian era.
Tess Dorbrewil is one of Hardy’s most shocking novels. Lack of family, Tess Dorbi Field serves those who are thought to be his relatives … and Alec, the young son of his family, deceives him …
Tess eventually marries Angel Clare, and after marrying her, she confesses to the mistakes she committed, but Angel, although she is not innocent, does not forgive him …
François philosopher Simone Dubois has praised this work as a super-philosophical work.
Tess Dorbrül, a novel for all the years of the century
Some writers are inherently aware of everything; Others are unaware of many things. Some, such as Henry James and Gustav Flaubert, can both take full advantage of the benefits of their talents and curb their genius in creating the work; They are aware of all the possibilities of any situation and will never be surprised. At the same time, it is felt that ignorant writers, such as Dickens and Scott, are suddenly pulled forward without their consent. When the wave subsides, they do not know what happened or why it happened. Thomas Hardy, an English poet and writer, should be included. In his own words, “Moments of Intuition” describes exactly those pieces of pure beauty and amazing power that can be found in every book he writes.
Hardy’s genius was vague at the time of his appearance and variable at the time of his realization, but he had a glorious appearance when that moment came. The topic was appropriate; The method was appropriate; The poet and the peasant, the lustful man, the bored thinker, the educated man, are all hired to create a book that, no matter how much the tastes change, retains its place among the great English novels.
Tess’s story is the story of someone whose lack of family leads him to serve those who are thought to be his relatives. An impressive work in praise of which, almost a hundred years after it was written, a figure like Simone de Beauvoir says in a discussion of literature and philosophy: Is”. A novel that has fascinated all readers of different generations for a century.
“I put my best talent into this book,” Hardy said as he finished writing Tess. He wrote the novel in 1888 in Dorchester, after touring the rural areas of Dorset and observing its decline. Two of the most reputable magazines refused to publish it, for some reason Hardy had to take back the manuscript of the story and sell it to another magazine after tampering with it. The novel is now one of the leading novels of nineteenth-century England, which faced fiery criticism for challenging late Victorian sexual morality.
Family poverty forces the innocent and beautiful Tess Dorbifield to work for wealthy families who are supposed to be her relatives, but Alec, the youngest son of the family, deceives her. After living in isolation for a while and losing her child to illness, Tess eventually marries a man named Angel Clare, and after the marriage, she explains to him out of simplicity and remorse. This confession makes Claire feel doubly attached to Tess and causes her to lose herself:
“Claire was still thinking hard, and Tess’s companionship now did not have the power to break or distract the pressure of thought. Wow, how insignificant Tess’s presence must have been! Tess urged him, “What have I done – what have I done!” I did not say anything that would interfere with my interest in you or deny it. You think I did it on a plan, right? What you are upset about in your own mind, Angel, is not in me. “Oh, this is not what you think in my mind, and I’m not the cheating woman you think.”
Tess, who is alone again, spends her time working and writing letters to Claire, but in the meantime, she finds herself sifted again and the story is drawn to the other side, which is not happy in the end.
In this influential philosophical work, Hardy challenges the human conscience and soul. In this work, he evokes a sense of empathy, hatred and regret in the reader at the same time, and beautifully and masterfully places him in a position of harsh judgment. By writing this work, perhaps Hardy intends to explicitly prevent man from judging by the actions of individuals and to call for judgment based on intentions.
“Tess, a young girl, leaves her village at the suggestion of her mother, Nasdaq, one of her wealthy relatives. There, he enters into a relationship with a young man named Alec, who is a friend and claims to be in love, but in the end, this love ends with the rape of Tess.
Tess returns to the village and gives birth to her child and begins a relatively quiet life for herself, but again the fate of her life is strained and she is challenged again with the death of her child and tastes the bitter taste of loneliness again.
Suddenly, another man named Claire is found and they get in a relationship and finally get married, and Tess decides to tell her secret.
But Claire is in a dilemma, and even though she is not a pure human being, she can not cope with this situation and eventually leaves Tess alone with her misfortunes.
But because …….. »
In this fascinating novel, the English writer Hardy tries to challenge conscience and compassion, and on the other hand, judgment.
We do what we deem ugly easily, and where we justify our actions we can not digest the mistakes of others.
About the author Tess of the d’Urbervilles:
Thomas Hardy (June 2, 1840 – January 11, 1928) was an English novelist and poet. His works are usually classified in the naturalist movement, but several of his poems show traces of Enlightenment and Romantic literature.
Hardy initially chose the profession of architecture but later, in his fifth decade of life, began writing and composing poetry. He wrote dozens of novels and poems, and his poems, along with his novels, were appreciated by literary lovers and had a significant impact on modern English poetry. Today he is remembered as one of the prominent poets and writers of the twentieth century.
Although Thomas Hardy considered himself more of a poet who wrote novels for material gain, he was best known for the novels he wrote. Among his world-famous works are Tess and Far Away from the People, based on both of which films have been made. The main feature of Hardy’s writings is poetic descriptions and determinism, and the characters in his stories struggle with the intense emotions and circumstances around them. Hardy works are performed in the semi-legendary and sex city.
Thomas Hardy was born near Dorchester, England. His father was a stonemason and his mother was an educated woman. Thomas studied with his mother until he was eight, when he first went to school. He then studied Latin for a few years at a local school. Hardy’s formal education ended at the age of sixteen, as the social status of the Hardy family was not such that he was required to attend university. He then began an internship with a local architect. Thomas Hardy trained as an architect until 1862, after which he moved to London and enrolled at King’s College.
He received an award from the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Society of Architects. Thomas Hardy never considered London his home. In London he was aware of class differences and his social status. Five years later, Hardy returned to Dorset worried about his health and decided to dedicate his life to writing.
In 1870, Hardy met and fell in love with his future wife, Emma Lavinia Gifford. Thomas and Emma were married in 1874. But death in 1912 had a profound effect on Thomas Hardy. After Emma’s death, Thomas traveled to Cornwall to relive his former memories with his late wife, poems that Hardy composed in 1912 and 1913 of Emma’s death. In 1914 he married Florence Emily Dagdel, 39 years his junior. At that time, he was still involved in the death of his first wife and was trying to overcome this grief by composing poetry.
Hardy contracted pneumonia in December 1927 and died in January 1928. The death certificate stated that the cause of death was cardiac arrest and old age. Thomas Hardy’s burial was controversial, his guardian wanted Hardy’s body to be buried in the Poets’ Cemetery, but Hardy’s heartfelt desire was to be with his beloved first wife, eventually his heart was buried next to his wife in Stansford and his ashes in the Westminster Cathedral Poetry Cemetery . Shortly after Hardy’s death, his trustee burned his letters and notebook. Only 12 pieces remain, one of which contains newspaper clippings from the 1820s. Subsequent research showed how Hardy used these stories in his work.
Hardy’s work is admired by later generation writers such as Virginia Woolf and Dee. اچ. Lawrence was placed.
Hardy’s first novel, The Poor Lady and the Poor Man, was completed in 1867 but could not find a publisher. He destroyed his manuscripts, only a part of which remains. Encouraged by George Meredith, his friend and mentor, who was himself a writer and poet, he continued to write Desperate Remedies anonymously in 1871 and Under the Greenwood Trees in 1872. In 1873 he published the story of a pair of blue eyes under his own name. The novel Far Away from the People, published in 1874, was so successful that he was able to quit architecture and devote himself full-time to literature, writing more than ten novels over the next 25 years.
Hardy published the first volume of his poems in 1898. Wessex’s poems are a collection of poems he has written for 30 years. Although his poems were not as well received in his day as his novels, he is today regarded as one of the great poets of the twentieth century. Most of his poems, such as “Ineffective Sounds” and “Not Arrived (Failure Meeting)”, contain the theme of despair of love and life and man’s long-term struggle with inequalities and the pain of humanity. Some of his poems, such as “The Blind Bird”, speak of love for nature and show his strong stance against cruelty to animals.
2- Introducing the book Tess of the d’Urbervilles in Aparat