Robinson Crusoe


Title: Robinson Crusoe

Author: Daniel Defoe

Translator: Farzam Habibi Esfahani

Publisher: The Miracle of Science

Subject: English stories

Age category: Adult

Cover: Paperback

Number of pages: 250

Language: Farsi



Robinson Crusoe, 19, lives a prosperous and comfortable life with his family in York, England. From a young age, he longs for travel and sailing, and despite the fact that he has great success if he stays with his family, he shakes everything and goes on a voyage.

All this is the first voyage for him to sound the alarm, because during that their ship sinks and they are saved with sheer happiness. However, the temptation to travel does not leave him and leads him to other excursions.
This time, luck is not with him and he is captured by pirates. The strange thing is that after escaping from the thieves, he still does not give up the risky journeys, and this is where the main event of the book takes place.

Robinson, who has settled in Brazil and started a thriving and profitable agriculture there, decides to go to Africa at the suggestion of his friends and bring some slaves to work on his own farms and those of his friends.

The wind is not supposed to be a bet and Robinson’s ship breaks again.
All aboard the ship sinks, but Cruze miraculously escapes, and the sea waves carry her to uninhabited islands. He does not know where he is, nor does he know what to do, what to eat, and where to sleep. Fear of native wildlife and predators is another reason to face great anxiety and fear.

Contrary to what he may think, it is impossible for Crusoe to leave the island. The island is uninhabited and the rapid currents around it allow small boats to escape. Cruze is sentenced to stay there for 28 years, 2 months and 19 days, alone and isolated.

Robinson Crusoe takes with him to the island the only book he has found among the wreckage.
These endless days of waiting are naturally nothing but the Bible. The endless days of waiting, in the midst of hunger, fever and chills, sickness and loneliness with the teachings of Christ and his religion, lead Robinson to self-reflection and reflection on the meaning of existence.

In these long reflections, he discovers that he has always been a greedy human being and a captive of the air of the breath. So he starts praying.

Was it not the grace of his Lord and Savior that made him a renegade on this deserted island, so that he could look at the past sorrows and all the untruths that surrounded him and left his heart in the lurch with his heart in solitude?

His companions all became prey to the sea, so how can he complain about his bad luck? Encouraged by this new realization, Robinson makes a tireless effort.

He builds a house and a boat for himself with the tools he brought from a broken ship, cultivates the land, unable to walk the great path of the sea with his insecure means, every time he stops trying, he crawls into the privacy of his hut and prays to his god. Secret and need sit.
He now feels, with all his sufferings, that he is the true owner of his body and soul, a body and soul that he cannot share his sorrow and joy with his fellow man, so he must continue to pray until the promises of salvation include the present. And be.

His companions in all these years of confusion and loneliness are dogs, goats, cats, and birds of prey, until the day when the savage tribes set foot on the island.

They set fire and start a cannibal feast, Robinson plots in his dreams to save the captives, the dream comes true and he finds Friday, a woven salvation that shows Robinson the way to salvation. .

About the author of Robinson Crusoe: Daniel Defoe
Known as the “Father of the English Novel”, Daniel Defoe is known from Robinson Crusoe. The exact date and place of his birth are unknown, and historians believe he was born between 1659 and 1662.

Daniel grew up in a family opposed to the Church of England and the Protestant denomination. He lost his mother as a child and went to the Church of the SubGenius to study as a teenager.

He became acquainted with various sciences, including history and geography, and became fluent in French and Spanish.

Daniel engaged in business at a young age and traveled to Spain and France. The businessman Daniel Defoe became a successful businessman, bought a ship and married the daughter of a businessman named “London”. It was not long before Daniel Defoe went bankrupt in his business and raised huge debts.
At the same time, he was active in politics, always opposed to the church, and joined social movements with the aim of religious reform. He was arrested and imprisoned for his political activities.

In his notes, Daniel Defoe criticized the current social situation in humorous language.

In the last years of his life he turned more and more to writing, and in 1719 he wrote Robinson Crusoe, gaining worldwide fame.

Long journeys were common at the time, and as a result, some people traveled to write travelogues;

Influenced by his passion for adventure and travel, Daniel Defoe traveled to different lands with his powerful imagination and created Robinson Crusoe in the form of a travelogue. Defoe died in April 1731.

Excerpt from the book by Robinson Crusoe
One morning I saw five boats docked on the shore near my house. Each boat had a capacity of five or six people.

I did not want to get involved with almost thirty people. I returned home and prepared to defend myself; But nothing happened. After a while, I picked up my gun and camera and went up the hill to see what the savages were doing. Those who numbered about thirty had already started a fire.

Two captives were seen in one of the boats. I thought they must want to eat both. One of the captives was pulled out of the boat by his captors and anesthetized with several blows.
Then they stabbed him to death. The other prisoner, who had been left alone, took the opportunity to jump out of the boat and escape. He came straight to my house.

I was afraid that all the savages would follow him, but only three people followed him.

The fugitive prisoner had to cross a small bay to reach my house. He was a good swimmer, and the swimmers crossed the bay and came to my house. Only two of the pursuers were able to swim. The third returned to his friends, and the other two continued to chase him, swimming slower than the fugitive.

Suddenly a thought came to my mind.
I could use this opportunity and not only save the life of a miserable man, but also find a slave and a companion for myself.

I came down the hill and stood between the fugitives and the pursuers. When the first cannibal arrived, I kicked him in the butt. I did not want to shoot a bullet, because the sound of bullets could be heard by other cannibals.

However, the second cannibal had a bow and arrow. He wanted to use his bow, and I had to shoot him. He was killed on the spot.

Story idea:
Defoe may have written part of his book based on the true experiences of a Scottish sailor named Alexander Selkirk, who in 1704, after a quarrel with the ship’s captain, at his own request on the coast of the uninhabited island of Mas A Tiira (in the Pacific Ocean) Near Chile) and he spent more than four years on the island, alone, feeding on fish, berries and wild goats. In 1966, the Chilean government renamed the island Robinson Crusoe.

Historical period of story writing:
The historical period of writing this work is a period from which literary travel writing was popular. The same period that the British and the Portuguese and the Dutch traveled to unknown places for long journeys;

The same period that America was discovered. These people always had a person with them who wrote their travelogue.

The author Robinson Crusoe and Gulliver’s Travels are not ordinary travel writers, but artists; Without traveling, they convey their idea to people through imaginary journeys.

An advanced idea reached by psychologists, including Freud, after 200 years. The author conveys human needs to his audience in the form of a travelogue.

By bringing the diary in the first book, the author has followed the format of the travelogue; But in some places he has abandoned it and given it the form of a story.

Book success:
Robinson Crusoe was a resounding success, and time has shown that it is a timeless masterpiece in the history of human art.

The book was published in 1719 and reached its fourth edition before the end of the year. In the history of Western literature, until the end of the nineteenth century, no book in terms of circulation, editing, printing, translation, etc. can reach this book.

The book has been translated into countless languages, and many authors, direct and indirect, have imitated the novel, and hundreds of films and series have been made from or inspired by it.

From the book and film of the Swiss Robinson family (known in Iran as “Dr. Ernst’s family”) by Johann David Weiss to the beautiful novel Treasure Island by Robert Lewis Stevenson, The Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift With the game “Tom Hanks” and even the famous series Last.
Robinson Crusoe has so conquered the English-speaking world that he has even added words and expressions to the language. For example, Friday Girl, made by Howard Hawks, is a movie of the same name, and in American slang it refers to direct, omnipotent, and all-out secretaries, and sometimes to hardworking, willing service men, originally called “Friday.” The character of Robinson Crusoe is taken.

The now-forgotten term Robinson has long been used for novels written in the Robinson Crusoe genre; The genre was revived again in 2000 with the far-flung film starring Tom Hanks.

Analysis of great writers and thinkers:
Many great writers and thinkers of the world have analyzed this work from different aspects:

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the famous French philosopher who was one of the first leaders in the new method of education in the world, preached against the addiction of the people at that time who considered education to be limited to reading dry, abstract and difficult books. And studied the experience of payment and nature and avoided reading books.

Rousseau only allowed one book to enter the school, and that is the whole story of Robinson Crusoe. Praising the novel in his book Emile, he wishes Robinson Crusoe “to be read by all young people to learn to live in freedom and simplicity and construction.”
Karl Marx analyzes Robinson Crusoe Island as a model of the modern individualistic economy of bourgeois society and believes that the book’s hero is a symbol of the bourgeoisie in the early period of capitalism and a symbol of the colonialists who conquered a significant part of the world in search of cheap raw materials, markets and labor. And by exporting their socio-economic relations, they turn these areas into their colonies.

The novel shows Robinson Crusoe conquering the island in the style of the British colonialists. In that house he builds castles and weapons, saves one of the natives, names him, teaches him the meaning of money and exchange, employs him and commands him.

In this way, Robinson Crusoe transforms nature into tools and commodities and human beings into labor.
The Irish author James Joyce, who was very interested in the book, also praised the book’s literary values; But he agrees with the idea that the protagonist is a typical example of classical colonialism.

Eduard Saeed, a Palestinian thinker, described Robinson Crusoe as one of the earliest examples of colonial literature, and argues that Defoe portrayed the mentality of the English colonialists of his day well.

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Additional information


دانیل دفو, دنیل دفو



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