Introducing the book No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre
The Book of Solitude, also translated as “Closed” and “Hell,” is Jean-Paul Sartre’s most famous play. The characters of the play are two women and a man who have died with different deaths and are now gathered together. Their work is to show the consciences of human beings deprived of their liberty.
Solitude is a one-act play, with four characters, three of whom are the main characters, and the fourth person is a man who is called a waiter. The three main characters in this play are decorated like the three sides of a triangle that also affect each other: two women (Stell and Ince) and two men (one named Garson and the other character called the waitress) are the room scene. In the style of the Second French Empire, where Stele, Ince and Garson meet after death in hell.
In this play, Sartre has masterfully prepared an opportunity for the characters to review their past in fear of the fate that awaits them. Solitude may not be Sartre’s best play, but in some ways it is his most important play. In particular, it is a key work that, along with nausea early in his career, reflects his philosophical views and, in particular, existentialism, which he has since represented as a leading figure.
Interestingly, the play was staged without any problems when France was under Nazi occupation, while Sartre symbolically casts a sarcastic corner on France and French politicians who had surrendered to the Germans.
Characters who, given their deeds, as well as the mentality they have in mind about how hell and its torments are in mind, are waiting for physical torture with an eternal sentence. The three characters have nothing in common. The waiter is a cowardly man who escaped the war, betrayed to save his life, but was eventually arrested and killed. Refers. Ince is a gay woman, a woman who loved him so frustrated that she killed Ince and then committed suicide, but Stell is a woman who bears the burden of the death of her illegitimate child.
Jean Paul Sartre has a narrative about this work that sums it up like this: I liked three and I wanted to write a play in which all three would play a role, and in order not to make one seem less important than the others, I used this technique. I brought all three of them on stage throughout the show.
Because the famous saying “Hell means others” is included in this work, Sartre said to dispel this: They thought that I wanted to say that our relationships with others are always poisonous and that these relationships are always hell, while I want to say that if a relationship with another If it is complicated and polluted, then it can only be hell. The rationale for this statement is that others are more important than ourselves in knowing ourselves. When we think of ourselves, we judge ourselves by the means that others have given us. Whatever I say about myself, it always leads to the judgment of others.
In a part of the book No Exit, you will read:
Ah! forget. What a childish word! I feel your presence to the core of my bones. Your silence fills my ears. You can nail your mouth, you can cut your tongue, but can you prevent your existence? Can you stop thinking? I hear its ticking sound, like a clock, and I know you hear my mind.
No matter how much you push yourself against the corner of your couch, you are everywhere, the sounds come to me in a polluted way, because you have heard them on the way. You have even stolen my face from me: you know it and I do not know it. and she? She? You stole him from me: And if we were alone, do you think he would dare to treat me like this? No, no: Take these hands off your face, I will not leave you alone, it will be very comfortable.
In this case, you will remain there without feeling, immersed in yourself, like a Buddha. I close my eyes, I will feel that he will give you all the noises of his life, even the rustle of his shirt, and he will send you smiles that you will not see … No, not like that! I want to choose my own hell; I want to look at you with all the strength of my eyes and fight while my face is clear.
In another part of this play, we read:
Ines: You are very beautiful. I wanted to have flowers to welcome you. Stell: Flowers? Yes sir. I really liked the flowers. They wither here: it’s too hot. To! But the principle is not to maintain our good mood. You … Ines: Yes, last week. And you? Stell: Me? Yesterday.
The ceremony is not over yet. They do whatever they can to make her cry. OK! OK! Another attempt. fixed! Two tears, two tears shining under the black cloth. Olga Jarda 6 is very ugly this morning.
He grabs my sister’s arm. He does not cry because of his mascara and I must say that if I were him … he is my best friend. Ince: Have you suffered much? Stell: No. I was mostly Meng. Ince: What was …? Stell: Essence. [Same as before] Well, it’s over, they’re leaving. Hello! Hello! What a loss. My husband is sick, he stays at home. [To Ines] And you? Ines: Gas. Estelle: And you, sir? Waiter: Twelve bullets in the body.
Stell: Oh! Dear Mr., I wish you were just kind and did not use these disgusting words. These … these are annoying. And finally, what do they want to say? Maybe we have never been so alive. If it is absolutely necessary to consider this nominal case for … I suggest that we call the absentees, it would be more regular. Have you been absent for a long time? “Waiter: It’s been about a month.”
Index of the bookNo Exit
Scene One: The waiter, the floor waiter
Scene 2: The waiter [alone]
Scene 3: Waiter, Ince, Waiter
Scene 4: Ince, Waiter, Steele, Waiter
Scene 5: Ince, Waiter, Steele
2- Introducing the book No Exit in Aparat