Khosrow and Shirin


Title: Khosrow and Shirin

Author: Nezami Ganjavi

Publisher: Atisa

Subject: Persian poetry

Cover: Hard

Number of pages: 292

Language: Farsi

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Khosrow and Shirin is one of the most famous Persian love poems. Khosrow, how did this last powerful Sassanid king fall in love with having 3,000 wives in his courtyard?

Khosrow and Shirin’s book is the most famous work and military masterpiece of Ganjavi and his second poem after Makhzan al-Asrar.

Nezami with Khosrow and Shirin split the roof of the sky and took a new way in eloquence and feasting.

Nezami is one of the poets who should undoubtedly be considered as one of the pillars of Persian poetry and one of the undisputed masters of this language. In Persian, to develop to the highest level is military.

In selecting appropriate words and phrases and creating special new combinations and inventing new and pleasing meanings and themes in each case and image, details, imagination and accuracy in description, and creating detailed landscapes and details in describing nature, people and circumstances. And the use of pleasant and new similes and metaphors is among those who did not find a peer after themselves.

Nezami recites Khosrow Shirin’s poems in the context of Khosrow’s life in Bazm Shirin, when fleeing from Bahram Choobineh, the two’s nights together, the lyric of each of Khosrow and Shirin’s maids and their conversation, Nakisa and Barbad’s anthem and in the musical literature the tone Barbad, expresses.

The main characters of the story of Khosrow and Shirin are: Khosrow Parviz, son of Hormoz and grandson of Anoushirvan, Shirin, nephew of Queen Aran, Shapur, manager and advisor of Khosrow Parviz, Farhad Mohandes Koohkan and Deldadeh Shirin.

Khosrow Shirin’s six thousand five hundred hundred verse poem has many pieces which are undoubtedly the eternal works of the Persian language and they are the ones that have caused a large group of poets to imitate it, even though none of them, except One or two people have not even come close to military territory, and the work of one or two people has faded in the face of the fame and greatness of the military work.

Allameh Dehkhoda writes about the influence of Khosrow and Shirin on Persian literature that “… the story of Khosrow and Shirin has become the subject of many love and epic poems of Iranians …”

When Sultan Arsalan of Seljuk asked the great poet of the time, Nezami Ganjaei, to write a love story, he did not even specify its subject and characters.

Nezami also chose the love story of Khosrow and Shirin.
It is said that this story is real and happened in the vicinity of the poet’s residence.

Nezami himself considered this love story to be the sweetest love story in the world. Khosrow and Shirin’s poems were so lasting and deep that various poets after him recreated this narration.

Nezami composed this poem under the influence of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and the poems of Weiss and Ramin Fakhreddin Asad Gorgani.

Amir Khosrow Dehlavi, Vahshi Bafghi and Vesal Shirazi are among those who wrote poems about this story after Nezami.

Nezami spent more than 16 years composing the 6,150-bit book.

Many believe that Nezami wrote this poem after the death of his beloved wife, Afaq.

The book’s influence on world literature is such that it is said that Samuel Richardson, the famous English writer in the seventeenth century, wrote the book “Pamela” inspired by Khosrow and Shirin Nezami.

About the author of Khosrow and Shirin: Nezami Ganjavi
Jamal al-Din Abu Muhammad Elias ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki ibn Muayyid, nicknamed Nezami and the famous Hakim Nezami (born 535 AH in Ganja – died 607-612 AH) Iranian poet and storyteller and Persian scholar in the sixth century AH, twelfth century AH (twelfth century AH) He is known as the leader of storytelling in Persian literature.

Ganjavi Military Tomb is located on the western outskirts of Ganja. Nezami is one of the most capable speakers of Persian poetry.

About the poet
Nezami, whose full name is Jamal al-Din Abu Muhammad Elias ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki ibn Mu’ayyid, is one of the famous poets and storytellers of Persian literature.

The influence of military works on Persian poetry and literature is such that he is also known as the leader of storytelling in Persian literature.

His skill was not only a complete knowledge of Persian language and storytelling.

He also had a high level of knowledge in astronomy, jurisprudence, Islamic sciences and Arabic language.

Nezami is one of those poets who do not know much about his life and events.

All available information has been left to him from the heart of verses or sayings and hearsay throughout history.

However, Vahid Dastgerdi, who has done a lot of research on military life, believes that the military birthplace is the city of Ganja, but because he has praised Iraq in all his works and always visits Iraq, it is certain that he is an Iraqi.

“Makhzan al-Asrar”, “Lily and Majnoon”, “Haft Peykar”, “Iskander Nameh” are among his most famous works.

Along with his fictional poems, the divan of poems and lyric poems of this great poet also has a special place in Persian literature. Storytelling in Persian existed before Nezami, but it was Nezami who was able to establish a special place in Iranian lyrical literature.

Part of Khosrow and Shirin
The sky has no altar but love
The soilless world of love has no blue
This is the slave of love
This is the profession of all owners
Someone who is empty of love is depressed
Garsh is dead without love
What is the best love in the world?
You did not laugh without him, he looked at the cloud
Because I did not see my life without love
I sold my heart, I bought Johnny
I covered the horizon with love
I made wisdom look good on my eyes
I love this story
I gave love to the world

The story begins when Khosrow Parviz, the great Sassanid king, was born and educated from a court age.

One day Khosrow goes hunting with his companions. They spend the night in a peasant house nearby and are busy rejoicing.

The next morning, one of their horses goes to the farmer and eats his produce. One of the slaves also desires lust.

In this way, they ruin the farmer’s crop. When the news reaches Khosrow’s father, Hormoz IV, he becomes very angry.

He orders the horse to be killed, the slave and the house to be given to the peasant, and the leash to be broken.

But he forgives Khosrow’s sin and forgives him. That night, Khosrow had a dream with his grandfather, Khosrow Anoushirvan.

Anoushirvan gives the good news to Khosrow that instead of the four losses he has seen, he will receive four great rewards: Shirin Delbar, his beautiful horse Shabdiz, the royal throne and a great and famous musician. And this prophecy is the beginning of wonderful and tumultuous adventures.

About Khosrow and Shirin’s book, Ganjeh’s military work
Throughout this beautiful and fascinating story, there are many great characters, who, at the same time as historical events and happenings, bring the narrative of this system closer to reality.

Shirin, an Armenian girl and a powerful and influential queen of the Sassanid era, is one of the most enduring figures in classical and romantic Iranian literature.

There are many narrations that consider Shirin very beautiful and attractive.

It is interesting that the story of Khosrow and Shirin’s love is also mentioned in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, but it seems that Ferdowsi does not have a very favorable opinion of Shirin.

While Nezami has introduced her as a chaste and independent woman.

After many ups and downs, she became the wife of Khosro Parviz, the great Sassanid king.

Shirin was so fascinated that one of the court’s stonemasons and engineers named Farhad also fell in love with him.
Khosrow becomes so angry and frustrated with this incident that he wants to destroy him.

But since he sees no sin in her, he deceitfully asks her to cut Mount Biston.

Khosrow had bet that if Farhad could succeed in this, Farhad would become a sweet carpenter.

There are many narrations about this which say that Khosrow sends an old woman to Farhad and falsely informs him of Shirin’s death.

Farhad stabs himself in the head with an ax and dies.

Khosrow and Shirin’s poetry, in addition to having a very high literary and lyrical value, also has a very interesting and fascinating narrative.

In addition, we can see a comprehensive picture of Iran during the Sassanids.

Throughout this book, we see beautiful and accurate military descriptions of lush gardens and fields and Abadan, which shows the importance of agriculture, respect for nature and the work and efforts of the people at that time.
Another issue to consider in this book is the position of women in ancient Iran.

Women at that time, along with men, had power and decision-making.

Even in choosing their spouse and lover, it was the women themselves who ultimately made the decision.

Women’s self-esteem and freedom have been such that someone like Shirin rides a horse alone and goes hunting.

The book also discusses how the tyranny, arrogance and extravagance of the country’s leaders ruined Iran’s power and wealth and paved the way for the destruction of a centuries-old dynasty.

Nezami has tried to use pure words and phrases and pleasant companions in composing this poem with great precision and sensitivity.

Due to his creativity in making new and original combinations, he has a special place in Persian literature.

Nezami has a strong and unique imagination and imagination.

His skill in attractive and captivating descriptions, in the form of verses full of weight and rhyme, is praiseworthy and unrepeatable.

Philosophical themes are also seen in military poems.

The only point is that he did not use the vulgar language of philosophers to convey his message.

In the heart of the same simple and melodic words, he has expressed concepts such as spoiling the tail, the ephemerality of life, the discrediting of the world and its transience.

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2- Introducing the book  in Aparat


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