Fear and Trembling is the work of Soren Kierkegaard.
Fear and Trembling (Danish: Frygt og Bæven) is one of Soren Kierkegaard’s most iconic works. The title of the book is taken from the Gospel of Paul to the Philippians, verse 2:12: “Notwithstanding in my presence, but now also in my absence, diligently pursue your salvation with fear and trembling.” In this work, Crickgor tries to understand Abraham’s horror and anxiety when God commands him to take his son Isaac to the land of Moriah to be sacrificed.
Kierkegaard considered fear and trembling to be his best books; He said this book was enough to immortalize my name. His lyrical dialectic, his art of forcing us to feel the special qualities of this realm of religion above us, which he himself pretended to be inferior, has never affected us so profoundly, and never – and he does not say so – his narrative until This limit was not related to his most personal arguments.
But it is not always easy to grasp the idea of Kierkegaard beyond the thought of Johannes de Silentio (apparently Soren Kierkegaard under that pseudonym), who attributes this work to him, and of course to him, but not to himself. According to Hirsch, “This is Kierkegaard’s most difficult work, in which he has tried more than any other means to confuse the reader by any means.”
This book has been translated into Persian by Mohsen Fatemi (in 1373) and Abdolkarim Rashidian (in 1378).
About the author of fear and shivering:
Søren Kierkegaard (Danish: Søren Kierkegaard) (1813–1855), also known as økirkəɡɔr (røn ˈkirkəɡɔ: r), was a Danish Christian philosopher, a man of existence, choice, and commitment. And fundamentally influenced new theology and philosophy, especially existential philosophy. He has been called the father of existentialism.
Kierkegaard was born on May 5, 1813 in Copenhagen. His father was a wealthy Lutheran businessman with a faith whose deep piety and clear image deeply affected Kierkegaard.
Kierkegaard studied theology and philosophy at the University of Copenhagen, and for a time followed Hegel’s philosophy until he saw Hegel’s philosophy as a safe haven for the individual and his place. He strongly believed that Hegel had built a strong palace (philosophical system) in which Hegel himself had no place, and reacted against it. While at university, he gave up his Lutheran religious duties and pursued an extreme social life for a time, becoming a familiar figure in Copenhagen’s theatrical community and cafes.
However, after the death of his father in 1838, he decided to resume his theological studies. In 1840 he became engaged to a seventeen-year-old girl named Regina Olsen, but later regretted his marriage, which gave him more opportunity to study. He abruptly broke his engagement in 1841. At the same time, he realized that he no longer wanted to be a Lutheran priest. His paternal inheritance allowed him to devote himself entirely to writing, creating more than twenty works in the remaining fourteen years of his life.
Kierkegaard considered fear and trembling to be his best books; He said this book was enough to immortalize my name. His “lyrical dialectic”, his art of forcing us to sense the special features of this realm of religion, has never influenced us so deeply, nor has his narrative been so closely linked to his most personal debates. But it is not always easy to fully grasp Kierkegaard’s thought beyond that of Johannes Doslentio.. According to Hirsch, this is Kierkegaard’s most difficult work, in which he has tried more than any other means to confuse the reader by any means.
Part of the fear and shivering
For greater clarity, it may be appropriate to consider the third question before the other two, which we do not separate.
Kierkegaard broke his promise; At the same time, in order to separate her fiancé from herself, to avoid suffering too great for her as much as possible, to save her from this monster of religiosity that she was – too spiritual, but not enough – to blacken herself in her eyes. کرد. Did not Abraham blacken himself in Isaac’s eyes by not revealing God’s will for him, who was in danger of losing Isaac’s faith? Abraham thinks it is better for Isaac to lose faith in me than to believe in God. Likewise, the man-fish that Kierkegaard tells us in the second part of Fear and Trembling must deceive Agnes for Agnes himself, must have the courage to break his heart.
However, nothing diminishes the fact that in the eyes of Abraham’s people he is ready to commit a crime and Kierkegaard has broken his promise. But what is ethics and what is its value?
Certainly in the moral sense of life there is a kind of beauty, a sense of comfort and harmony; This concept requires courage and nurtures enthusiasm. But Kierkegaard tends to equate morality, inner and outer self-sufficiency, the integration of the individual into one set, reason considered in Hegel’s style, and finally the whole. The whole translation was inside the foreign language; And to express oneself in a moral way
It must manifest itself on the outside. Ethics is the same as general.
But there are people who can not surrender to the general. And without a doubt, when we look at it from a general point of view or an idea, the will of the individual to place himself above the general is considered a sin. But if there is something unknowable, irreducible, and hidden, if, against Hegel’s will, the inside cannot be expressed entirely outside, if the inside is superior to the outside, then mediation in its Hegelian sense collapses and a way of placing oneself There is the supernatural, from its acknowledgment as unmeasurable by the general, which is no longer sin (which will not be sin except from the voluntary point of view of the whole and the idea). Thanks to faith, the inside is superior to the outside. Faith rejects Hegel. Just as Hegel destroyed faith
“If the inside is not superior to the outside, Ibrahim is a loser.”
In faith, the person addresses you as the god of the heavens and is in a private relationship with him. The individual enters into an absolute relationship with the absolute as a person. This is the realm of great loneliness; It can not be entered with a companion, no human voice can be heard in it; Nothing can be taught or explained in it.
Henceforth temptation is morality, that is, generality. Also, while the hero of the tragedy can express himself, witness his wives and other persons, the knight of faith acts only for God and only for himself; He refuses to mediate; He can not speak because it means translating himself into language and therefore into the general. He can only feel in the person he is watching
Arouse religious fear, not pity. It can be said that he can not even talk to himself.
Beyond the sphere we find the escape task towards infinity.
There is no rule here; There is no longer a standard; There is no longer any justification for relying on the social and historical consequences of an action, that is, on the consideration of the human set and the historical set; Justification does not come after action, but is immediate and appears from the first moment, from the sacred moment that is the beginning. This is a completely individual and immediate justification. The result is never a finite answer to an infinite question, but this is the immediate justification of an infinite answer, in extreme stress, to the infinite question posed by the individual. Only such a justification is forward-looking, not backward.
Am I justifying myself? Is it God? I also obey the commands of God. I too am in my intimate individuality, God is in His supreme authority. God, in your words, is one of Kierkegaard’s most experienced and sometimes profound commentators, namely the “rule of individuality”; It is an absolute exception, an absolute that justifies all exceptions. He is, as Job’s story suggests, a person for whom moral categories are completely suspended. Autonomy and other religions unite.
Violation of the law here is undoubtedly against general tendencies, but it is also against individual tendencies. Abraham loves Isaac; He loves her more when he has to sacrifice her, and he’s the one who has to kill her. He tries to get back into the general, but despite his desire, he does nothing but crush it and crush his heart.
Hence, Kierkegaard ousted her because of her love for her fiancé. as well
A fellow man who hoped to be saved in his love for Agnes and to have his guilt atoned for in general, like Kierkegaard who hoped to find forgiveness in his love for Regina, must be plunged back into the bitter waters of despair after being deceived by Agnes. .
But how will one know that there is a “justified exception,” that is Abraham, that man is a good fish and not a bad fish? How will he know that the anxiety in which he finds himself, this incessant concealment in which he lives, this silence, is the devil’s trap or a sign of choice? Faith is both selfishness and absolute forgiveness; For action for the sake of God is action for the sake of self;
How do we know that we are in the presence of the selfishness of faith and not the selfishness of selfishness? Is Kierkegaard Ibrahim or a man-fish with a passionate nature who leaves his beloved daughter, perhaps partly because he fears the unrestrained emotions of his being, but especially because he can not resist the force of innocence? , Because this passionate nature we are talking about leaves him in the face of innocence? And when he wants to do the movement of faith, does he not test God? This is all the more revolutionary when in the realm of religion God curses those who forgive, as in the realm of aesthetics we see madness in connection with genius.
One cannot know that one has chosen, but one will feel it in the same anxiety about this question. The answer lies in the question itself, in the anxiety that resonates in the soul. And fear and trembling are all questions of this kind, an anxious question and, as we shall say, a prayer.
So the believer lives in constant danger; Because here the result is not important, but only the way to reach the result is important and the way to reach the result is the same as anxiety. Anxiety is the only guarantee. What justifies Mary, what justifies the apostle, what justifies Abraham is their fear and anxiety.
Kierkegaard is constantly approaching the edge of evil abysses. Maybe he is not Abraham but Sarah, the one who must surrender, just as Abraham is the one who must win? Do we not recognize the image of Kierkegaard in this Sarah who cannot love, who is deprived of her grace, who suffers without being a sinner? And all these images have similarities, similarities in their eyes with which the devil is dealing.
“An arrogant and sublime nature can not tolerate sympathy”; Either he will “become disgusted” with the world, like Shakespeare’s Gloucester, or he will confront humans, and was this not often the case with Kierkegaard?
On the other hand, there is more goodness in the evil element than in ordinary people; The evil element is genius. There we are in the presence of this paradox, which is the similarity between two paradoxes, one of which is divine and the other evil. Like the religious, the evil is outside the general, the supernatural, and in an absolute relation with the absolute; Like religious natures, evil natures “have their roots in paradox.” Kierkegaard does nothing but show us this vast and dark area. “Evil is generally not talked about much, while especially in our time this area needs to be explored. »
But he insists that the evil paradox can not be removed except by the divine paradox. The one who has sinned has placed himself outside the whole, in relation to the Absolute, but in a negative way; He can no longer be saved unless he puts himself in a positive relationship with the Absolute because of the loss of any relationship with the whole. For morality is insufficient to truly come out of sin; The remorse that drives our morality, the remorse that ends morality, destroys it as it ends morality.
At the moment, however, Kierkegaard does not bring the idea of guilt to the fore. Abraham did not sin.
This is like the top of a drama. In ancient tragedy, Nemesis is evident in the eyes of fortune tellers and fortune tellers; He is predictable by occultists and evident by data; The true inward is not yet born, the statues do not hold, and destiny is blind; Tragedy is more epic than dramatic, but it is the god who suddenly inspires Kierkegaard that he must not keep his promise, that he must not marry, a god whose jealousy, or rather his love, is not manifested by any external event, but only in Kierkegaard’s soul appears to him through Kierkegaard’s love, the inward God who speaks to the inward.
Only one can judge whether to
Is he really a knight of faith or not? No one can help him – but he will help – if he has to – with something more powerful than anything in the world, which is faith.
“I am not Abraham,” Kierkegaard replied. But the problem for him is to describe Abraham, to understand him, or to
To understand the phrase more accurately that he can not be understood, the problem is that we must define the boundaries between the various spheres of life as honestly as possible, we must live as honestly as possible to the end with religious belief, in the belief of life He did not turn faith, which is a wine-maker, into something else, the tasteless water of Hegelian rationality.
Abraham, the Father of Faith According to St. Paul, the knight of faith who goes farthest with faith, like the knight Düerr who goes farthest with death and fights for forgiveness as Jacob did in the wilderness He was forgiven, and like Job he struggles with God, yes, what human understanding is able to understand Abraham? The great error of the Hegelian school was the notion that one could go beyond faith. In fact, not only can you not go beyond Abraham, you can not even reach him. We must describe faith, but we must know that any description of faith is incorrect, because the first thing we know about faith is that faith is a private relationship with God.
The movement of faith is something complex and mediated; Faith is an intertwined stream of time and a complex process.
First we say that faith is a passion (naturally not a salt that remains in the immediate stage). Passion inspires everything that is great in our actions, inspires everything that is infinite in our thoughts, and is born of the passion of individuality and immortality; Every infinite movement is passionately acknowledged. Great passion is what awaits the impossible; The bigger and more frightening the person wants and what he is fighting against, the higher the goals and obstacles, the bigger and scarier the person is. Now Abraham wants the impossible, he wants God and he tries with him.
Faith is a salt that depends on a story that it does not understand and to which it constantly returns, a salt that tests with God, that fights in God and is constantly pushed back, falls on itself and inwardly. It reaches the real and at the same time touches the appearance. Passionate thought strikes its boundaries in a joyous way; And “he wants this defeat in the same way as the poor lover who surrenders with full consciousness to the salt that he knows will lead him to destruction.” Faith is the greatest passion.
2- Introducing the book Fear and Trembling in Aparat