Introducing the book of Hafez’s Divan by Hafez Shirazi
Hafez’s divan is a complete collection of Hafez’s poems and lyric poems. Ghazal of Hafez has romantic levels such as Ghazal of Saadi, has mystical levels of Ghazal of Attar, Rumi and Iraqi, and on the other hand has the main task of the ode which is praise.
Introducing the book of Divan Hafez
Hence, Hafez’s poetry represents all three major currents of poetry before him, and the protagonist of his poetry is both a god and a lover and a praiser.
Hafez’s poetry in the vertical axis is mostly worldly and romantic or praiseworthy, and various themes such as mysticism are in the verbal axis, and those who consider his poetry as mystical pay attention to the horizontal axis, that is, they consider his verses independent.
There is no doubt that there is a delicate artistic connection between Hafez’s verses.
But it should be noted that the longitudinal connection with the unity of the subject is different and the connection of his verses with each other is sometimes through the association of words and meanings.
What separates his poetry from the poetry of the poets of the combined group, in addition to God-given grace, is that Hafez is also a political and militant poet, who has dealt with acute social issues of his time with the language of ambiguity and humor, and with the kind of pretending kings. And the ascetics and false Sufis have been engaged in fierce struggles, and therefore his poetry is full of historical references to the situation of his time, many of which are unknown to us.
On the other hand, he has snatched the lead from everyone in the use of literary language, that is, the full use of novelty and expression, and the creation of numerous musical and semantic relations between words. In the literal novel, he pays more attention to the types of puns and rhymes, and in the spiritual novel, he pays more attention to the types of ambiguities such as the ambiguity of proportionality, the ambiguity of contradiction, the ambiguity of translation and exchange, and the ambiguity of puns and employment. His poetry is no longer empty of allusions to mystical and Qur’anic points and teachings.
Ambiguity in Hafez is noisy and its frequency is higher than all industries in a way that some have considered it as the main feature of Hafez style.
The different types of ambiguity in Hafez’s poems are such that there is a view that Hafez discovered this industry for the first time.
Another major feature of Hafez’s poetry is humor, which he has used in all fields, including the imaginary, and sometimes recalls Khayyam in intellectual fields.
But in general, Hafez’s divan is a summary of all the important currents and responsibilities of the literature before him. He paid attention to the poems of all the great poets, especially to the poems of his contemporaries, half of the poets of the ensemble, and many of his lyric poems are imitations of their lyric poems.
But his literary expression overshadows all the original examples.
Khajeh Shamsuddin Mohammad Shirazi, nicknamed “Hafiz”, is a great lyricist and one of the gods of Persian poetry and literature. He was born in Shiraz around 726 AH.
He learned science and technology in the class of the stars of the time and found a high foundation in the literary sciences of the time. Especially in jurisprudential and divine sciences, he pondered a lot and memorized the Qur’an with fourteen different narrations.
Goethe, the great German scientist, poet, and orator, wrote his Oriental Divan in his name, inspired by his thoughts. His collection of poems includes lyric poems, several poems, several Masnavi, pieces and quatrains. He died in 792 AH in Shiraz.
His tomb in the memory of Shiraz is a shrine of scholars and lovers of Persian poetry and literature.
2- Introducing the book in Aparat