The autumn of the patriarch


Title: Autumn Patriarch

Author: Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Translator: Mohammad Firooz Bakht

Publisher: Another story

Subject: Colombian stories

Age category: Adult

Cover: Paperback

Number of pages: 336 p

Language Farsi



The autumn of the patriarch (Spanish: El otono del patriarca) is a 1975 novel by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

The book “Patriarchal Autumn” was written by Gabriel Garcia Marquez in 1975 and translated into Persian by Kiomars Parsai. Marquez is one of the most important contemporary writers who has also won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Patriarchal Autumn is one of his brilliant works, which took seven years to write.

This book differs in prose from Marquez’s other masterpiece, One Hundred Years of Solitude; However, it is stronger and more admirable than the reader can put it down. The book’s fiction is similar to the historical events of the dictatorship of Francisco Franco in Spain, Anastasio Somoza, and Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic.

The novel, which is in fact the satire of a Latin American dictator, depicts the loneliness and depression of a dictator on the one hand, and his cruelty and violence on the other. The author himself believes that the patriarchal autumn is a poem about power alone and a description of the life of an immortal dictator.
“The more one gains power, the more difficult it becomes to determine who is with him and who is against him,” he said of the dictator’s loneliness. When he reaches full power, his contact with reality is completely cut off, and this is the worst kind of loneliness.

The dictator is surrounded by people whose goal is to completely separate him from reality. “Everything goes hand in hand to complete his loneliness …” The book is published by Ariaben Publishing.

In part of the book we read:
He faced the worst earthly insecurities, the worst evils, and the fiery traps of his life. Now it is hard to find anyone who can believe the predictions about his fate!

However, while embalming his body, everyone was waiting for the prophecies to come true. As the saying goes: “On the day of his death, the swamps of swamps return to their source, that is, to the rivers, it rains and the shape of the eggs becomes pentagonal and the world is filled with silence and darkness, because he is the end of the creation of the universe.”

We could not believe it … Newspapers were still being published, announcing his immortality, and forging his glory and courage with archived writings. Every day, a picture of him was published on the front page of the newspaper in full authority and lively in military uniform, five degrees from his heyday, and we had lost his age.
As usual in his photographs, he was inaugurating famous buildings and public facilities, or the news of an official meeting he chaired yesterday, but in fact it was all from the previous century. We knew these things were not true, in fact he had not been seen in public since the horrific death of Leticia Nazarno. For years he remained alone in his palace, but government work went on as usual on a daily basis.

In 1941, Gabriel Garcاa M مارrquez published his first articles in a high school student newspaper, Juventude. He gave up his salary. He first wrote his stories with the help of pieces of news from the press, and perhaps this beginning had a tremendous impact on all of his work.
Strongly influenced by the American author William Faulkner, Garcia Marquez published his first book at the age of 23, which was well received by critics. He went to Rome in 1954 as an El Observer reporter and to Paris in 1955 after the closure of his newspaper.

On a brief trip to Colombia in 1958, she proposed to her fiancé Mercedes Barcapardo at the age of thirteen, and they lived together for more than half a century, spending most of those years in Mexico. Between 1955 and 1961 he traveled to several Eastern and European bloc countries and in 1961 moved to Mexico to live.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez began writing the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude in 1965 and finished it in 1967. Hundred Years of Solitude was published in Buenos Aires and was a great success and is considered by most critics to be his masterpiece. Gabriel Garcاa M مارrquez won the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature for his novel.

The first idea to write the first chapter of the book One Hundred Years of Solitude came to him in 1965 while driving to Acapulco, Mexico. All editions of One Hundred Years Alone in Spanish sold out in the first week. In the 30 years since the book was first published, more than 30 million copies have been sold worldwide and translated into more than 30 languages.

Gabriel Garcاa M مارrquez published The Story of a Drowning Man in Barcelona in 1970, and in the same year he was offered the Colombian embassy (consulate) in Spain, but he turned it down and embarked on a long journey of two years. The Caribbean began, and during this time he wrote the incredible and tragic story of the simple-hearted Arendira and his hard-hearted grandmother, which won the Gauss Romulus Award for Best Novel.

Gabriel Garcia then returned to Spain to study closely Franco’s dictatorship, the result of which was the novel The Patriarchal Autumn.
Perhaps one of the most important factors that keeps his work popular despite all its ups and downs is that anything in Marquez can be done.

These strange and wonderful events happen so real and logical that the audience may never be able to touch anything more real than them. Marquez has the ability to write in real life what is in the human mind (dream, melancholy, fantasy, etc.) with a novel atmosphere, and this is the point that gives reality a new meaning in his works.

In his works, Marquez, because of his ability in storytelling and narration, was able to influence almost all walks of life around the world and even introduce or reconcile literature. This by no means means that the level of Marquez’s work is such that it is popular; in fact, with his fascinating narratives, he was able to raise the level of taste of all levels of society to a great extent.

Of course, the fact that the author is a journalist is not ineffective in this regard. Due to his journalistic career and courageous spirit, Marquez has always been in the heart of facts and has touched them, and naturally he has been able to bring life to his works in some way.
Gabriel Garcia Max returned to Colombia in the early 1980s but returned to Mexico with his wife and two children at the threat of the Colombian army. He was officially named Latin American Man of the Year in 1999, and in 2000 Colombians petitioned for Marquez to run for president, which he refused.

Marquez was one of the pioneers of the literary style of magical realism, although not all of his works can be classified in this style.

Doctors announced in 2012 that Marquez had Alzheimer’s disease. Over time, Gabriel Garcia Max’s creativity and writing ability declined. Gabriel Garcia spent about ten years writing The Memoirs of My Sad Prostitute, published in 2004, and announced in January 2006 that he had lost interest in writing.

His legacy is a large collection of fiction and non-fiction books that make everything possible and believable by linking myth and history. Gabriel Garcia Marquez received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1982, and the Nobel Foundation described him as a “magician of words and insight” in a statement. All of his stories are written in prose that can only be compared to South American carnivals in terms of their colorful variety and charm.
Gabriel Garcia Max’s work has been praised for its rich prose in conveying the author’s rich imagination to the reader. But some critics see Max’s work as a deliberate exaggeration and a recourse to the myths and wonders of nature to escape the current unrest and violence in Colombia at the time.

Unrest and political violence have intertwined the family as a unifying element, combining it with religious fervor and belief in the supernatural as a whole. The works of Gabriel Garcia Max, as patriarch or general, in his labyrinth well illustrate the strengthening of his political motives in response to the escalation of violence in his country Colombia.

Gabriel Garcia Max was deported to Europe after writing an article in opposition to the Colombian government. When he wrote the non-fiction book Miguel Litin’s Secret Trip to Chile in 1986, General Pinochet’s dictatorial government burned 15,000 copies of it.
He went on to write works in which the left wing of politics was evident. He had a close friendship with French Socialist President François Mitterrand in the 1980s and had long been a close friend and even representative of Fidel Castro, the former Cuban leader.

Garcia Marquez has been embroiled in a heated debate over the defense of Fidel Castro’s government, which has long been seen by a large number of intellectuals and writers as an authoritarian regime.

Because of his defense of the Cuban government, he was not allowed to enter the United States for some time. The US government later reconsidered its decision, and Marquez traveled to California several times to be treated for lymph node cancer. Gabriel Garcia Max criticized US intervention in Vietnam and Chile. Despite these criticisms, former US and French presidents Bill Clinton and François Mitterrand were friends of Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez died on Thursday, April 17, 2014, at the age of 87 in Mexico City. Two years before his death, Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s brother announced that he was suffering from dementia and would no longer write. Gabriel Garcia Max’s body was cremated the next day in Mexico City, and part of his ashes were transported to his native Colombia.

The book “The autumn of the patriarch” is the story of an old man who lived to be 107 to 232 years old and five thousand illegitimate children were born to him and he lives alone and alone in a dilapidated palace mixed with dirt and animal waste. The book Patriarch’s Autumn contains six sections, all of which begin with the very first scene of the story, the discovery of the dictator’s body.

When Garcia Marquez traveled to Barcelona, ​​Spain, to write his novel One Hundred Years Alone, he was confronted with the atmosphere of Spain in those days and the repressive government with Franco’s annoying restrictions.
It was in this city that he became closely acquainted with the consequences of dictatorial rule for the people, and devised the design of his next book, The Patriarchal Autumn. Garcia Marquez studied dictators for ten years to write the book Patriarchal Autumn, and interviewed a variety of people who lived under dictatorship. He then returned to the Caribbean and began writing novels.

Garcia Marquez uses the most sophisticated style of writing in The Patriarch’s Autumn, and the novel is structured in such a way that time is quite fluid and always goes back and forth, and if the reader does not focus enough on the subject, it is very difficult to finish the novel. will be.

The book The autumn of the patriarch is the story of a dictator who has a completely black personality and no positive behavior or points can be found in his life. The dictator at the beginning of his rule is a beloved, holy and respected person who is directly present among his people.
Gradually, a lot of power and dictatorship come together, and eventually he is given full power, and the contact with reality is completely cut off, and he begins to be alone. The temperament of a dictator makes him commit a crime, and the fall of a dictator begins when there is a coup against him and he does not see the people with him. He also has imitations that in some cases are imitations that are present in some places.

The patriarch is still a tyrant, cruel, skeptical, and delusional, and he is also an innovator for his own cruelty, crimes, and perversions. At parties and ceremonies, no one even dares to breathe in his presence. In addition to the people and those around him, even his first-degree relatives have not been spared from his cruelty and crime.
A dictator whose father is not known and who loves his mother madly, and after his death he ridiculously raises her to the status of a saint among the people and calls her mother in trouble as if she were God. They call.

Important points in the book PThe autumn of the patriarch:
The patriarch loves his mother madly and is attached to her. A mother who suffers from the plague in the last months of her life, and it is interesting that during the whole period of her patriarchal illness, she takes care of her mother alone, and after her death, we still see her mother! Those are the times when the patriarch, in sorrows and troubles, calls his mother’s soul by name and asks her for help.
The patriarch meets a young nun who has a tremendous impact on her life and even the government (albeit temporarily)! The young nun plays the role of a reformer for the patriarch and the government as long as she lives! A nun named Leticia Nazarno!
Blessings of Leticia make decisions in the bedroom:
The church was re-licensed, and the patriarch had a seven-month-old son from Leticia, who considered him his only legitimate child, loved Laticia’s only child, and taught him the rule of dictatorship. So much so that, thanks to the dictator’s father, Leticia’s son had reached the rank of major general when he had just recognized his left and right hands and understood who he was !! … But he and his mother are both killed in the continuation of the story and plunge the patriarch into deep sorrow!

The autumn of the patriarch begins when a group of high-ranking military coups against him… the people are no longer with the dictator …
But now he was well aware that what he lacked was not intimacy with women but love.

He who has realized over the years that lying is easier than doubt and more useful than love!

And at the end of the story, there were songs of joy of the people that resounded in the streets with the death of the dictator and celebrated the death of the patriarch.
“Literally my most important book is Patriarchal Autumn,” says Garcia Marquez of The Patriarchal Autumn. This work, which I always wanted to write, saved me from anonymity. I worked for more than 17 years to create this work.

As the author of the novel puts it, it is “a poem about the loneliness of power” and a description of the life of an immortal dictator.

Garcاa M مارrquez has inspired the novel’s fictional character with real dictators, such as Colombia’s Gustavo Rojas Pinella, Spain’s “General Franco” (written in Barcelona) and Spain’s Juan Vicente Gomez.

The novel has long paragraphs that evoke the sentences of the dictator’s loneliness and depression along with its cruelty and cruelty.
As always, Marquez uses the style of “magical realism” in his book, a style that combines reality and imagination. The novel presents the reader with real events glazed by the author’s imagination, events such as the explosion of a church.

Garcia Marquez calls the patriarchal autumn novel a long poem about the loneliness of a dictator, and considers it a more important literary achievement than a hundred years of loneliness.

The main psychological characteristics of a dictator and a patriarch are:

The illusion of conspiracy around
The first characteristic of a dictator in a patriarchal autumn book is his skepticism. Dictators often gain power through conspiracy and conspiracy. Inevitably, suspicion of others and potential rivals is always on their minds.

The illusion of immortality
Dictators live and rule as if they believe in their immortality.

The illusion of salvation
Dictators rule as if their rule is eternal, and they seize power in such a way, or in other words, they are seized by power in such a way that no one knows how the country will be run in their absence! And this anxiety about what will happen to the country after them is one of the stresses that people experience.

The illusion of people’s love for them
All dictators think that people love them and have a kind of self-deception and make themselves unaware, and they are always trying to prove that people love them.

The illusion of being right
They constantly find themselves on the right path and in fact see themselves as the center of it; Whoever is with them is right and whoever is not with them, if disasters occur in their government, they do not accept any responsibility and these mistakes are always related to their subordinates or enemies.

Bahram, you were buried all your life!
Death finally came to him when he did not expect it. I was in power and inevitably suffered from deep loneliness. He fell victim to the worship of power and unaware of the meaning of life! He loved to be immortal and believed in it. Even though he knew he was being deceived, he accepted it because he felt immortal from the slogans and behaviors of his fans.

One of the highlights of the patriarchal autumn story is the role of the dictator’s mother, and mothers have always played a prominent role in the lives of Latin American dictators. They usually did not have a father and were somehow self-made and had a special relationship with their mothers. The mother is the only person they trust! In a way, it also shows them alone.

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