Human, All Too Human (1878) with a special style consisting of 638 selections, is Nietzsche’s second work after “The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music” (1872). The Birth of Tragedy was Nietzsche’s first book on theoretical philology. At that time, Nietzsche was a thirty-three-year professor of classical philology at the University of Bal, but after his humane writing, Ziyadani officially resigned. In Nietzsche’s own words, “human, over-human is reminiscent of a crisis,” a crisis that, on the one hand, is the product of Nietzsche’s period of temperament and, on the other, reflects his intellectual evolution.
In fact, this book is a testament to Nietzsche, the philologist and cultural critic, to Nietzsche, the philosopher and writer. That is the same Nietzsche we know today. Most of Nietzsche’s works are the product of this second period of his intellectual life. Works such as Anak Man (1888), such as Zarathustra, Beyond Good and Evil, Pegah, The Evening of Idol, This period of crisis, although it began with a personal complication in Nietzsche, but signaled a great crisis that Nietzsche is destroying our entire culture and civilization. He saw the transition to it. The same crisis that Nietzsche called the “death of God.”
In the case of Nietzsche himself, this crisis was accelerated, on the one hand, by his deep understanding of the pervasive consequences of the collapse of traditional methods of thought and, on the other, by his knowledge of the inefficiency of the Enlightenment. He saw that, on the one hand, traditional methods of thinking were no longer the way forward for modern man, while the teachings of the Enlightenment did not solve the challenges of modern man. The resources he always seeks to fill in his gaps, and the book The Human, the Extremely Human, expose the same challenge that Nietzsche faced.
Human, All Too Human
In those years, in European countries, religion enjoyed an official position and the undisputed loyalty of the people, and thus was spared a serious challenge. Art, literature, music, and various sciences and sciences flourished, Germany continued its hundred-year dominance in the field of philosophy, but despite all this, Nietzsche still believed that there was still a long way to go. He hated popular culture, the reckless world, and the new social, economic, and political conditions that surrounded him, and he could no longer take its intellectual and religious tradition seriously.
For this reason, Nietzsche appears in the human book, the superhuman, as a meticulous, analytical and wise thinker, and tries to dispel illusions and break idols, laments what threatens the culture of the time, and sings with the idea of enlightenment. And seeks refuge in the pen in the hope that it can identify and treat what undermines culture and threatens its future. He believed that the only thing that could provide a justifiable and deserving possibility of life was the continuation and rooting of the Enlightenment thinking that led to the sting of affairs and the cruel removal of the veil from the face of truth.
Human Nietzsche, the superhuman, believes that nothing is free from criticism, and that all the “idols” praised may be hollow and “superhuman” when criticized.
In this book, everything in human life that seems transcendent is called to the court of insight and contemplation, and it achieves humiliating results. He wants to show that our superhuman humanity is much less than it should be, but it nevertheless gives us something to work with, which of course we should not underestimate, but if we want to make something worthy of ourselves, we must look. Let’s have a deep self and focus on this in this work, and thus Nietzsche romanticism turns to Nietzsche pure analytical naturalism and tries to distance itself as much as possible from Wagner-Schopenhauer romanticism.
Two adopted fathers who for a long time, Nietzsche’s intellectual life was in their spell, and the traces of their thoughts and feelings in “Birth of Tragedy” can be well followed. He later wrote Schopenhauer as a Teacher (1874) and Richard Wagner in Bayreuth (1876) to pay homage to the two. Nietzsche, who had lost his father as a child, chose Schopenhauer as his intellectual godfather and Wagner as his emotional and spiritual godfather. Perhaps it was not without reason that Gazin’s article 381, in the same book, writes about the “reform of nature”: “If a person does not have a good father, he must have a good father for himself.” But at the time he was writing these words, he had passed this stage and was trying to free himself from the fathers he had set up for himself.
In humanity, Nietzsche’s superhumanism no longer sees anything transcendent, heroic, or superhuman. Everything is humane and superhuman for him. In the selection of the second statement on the “innate shortcomings of philosophers,” he states that “philosophers all suffer from this common shortcoming, starting their work from the present man and thinking that they are capable of achieving their goal by analyzing him.”
They inadvertently regard man as an eternal truth which, in the midst of all change, stands as a sure measure of things … ” Guarantee. But he himself had come to the difficult fact that the realization of a higher humanity requires two things; One is a careful examination of what is human and superhuman, and the other is a careful examination of what it entails, which he later called the exaltation of human life.
The idea he came up with in these two ways was the idea of the “Friegeist”; A phrase that Nietzsche uses to describe such a thinker and human being who considered himself an example of it or at least becoming one. By the same token, he also chooses the subtitle of his book; He brings “a book for free souls” and on the back of his book; “The purpose of this work is to create a new image and ideal of the free soul.”
But regarding the style, context and structure of this book, it should be said that the writing style of this book is very different from other works of Nietzsche. This book contains 638 selections of statements that in fact he has expressed his reflections and observations in a few sentences or a few short paragraphs and is considered as a precious treasure to know Nietzsche’s intellectual layers. These 638 word choices are thematically arranged in nine chapters;
About the beginning and end of affairs / About the history of moral feelings / Religious life / About the population of artists and writers / Signs of superior and inferior culture / Man in society / Woman and child / A look at the state / Man alone The title of these nine chapters is in addition to a preface and a post by Nietzsche himself and two introductions, one by Richard Shakht and the other by Arthur C. Danto and the Nietzsche of Nietzsche’s Life, which make up a total of 474 pages. Written by Shiva and Silis Abu Trab Sohrab and Mohammad Mohaghegh Neyshabouri and with the efforts of prolific publishing the center has taken over Persian.
This book is, above all, a transient mental product that travels in different directions and ways, does not pay attention to the boundaries and criteria of knowledge, and has only Nietzsche’s intellectual interests and consciousness in it, which is its intellectual compass. Be. The formative choice that Nietzsche chose for his book was one that was devoted to the literature of humanities scholars, who preferred to comment decisively on many issues rather than essay writing, such as the writing style of Montagne and Laroche-Foucault, who repeatedly admired their writing style. Was and set it as an example.
This work has no philosophical literature at all. In those cases, it can be found that it does not seem to have anything to do with philosophical issues. Even ideas related to philosophical issues are not expressed and presented mainly in a philosophical way, and many comments do not have philosophical arguments behind them, and sometimes they are colored. They become emotional and biased. We see this kind of literature a lot in the “Woman and Child” section;
For example, in Selection 393 on “Unity of Place and Drama” he writes: “If a couple did not live together, successful marriages would be more.” Or in Section 403, entitled “The tool to force everyone to do anything,” he says: “And this is what diplomats and women do.” Especially in the case of women, it often takes a defensive stance.
But later, as Nietzsche’s philosophy came to the fore, the depth of this selection became even clearer. Some of these choices are so profound that they remind Freud of familiarity with his thinking, such as verse 491, which writes of “man’s conception of himself”: “Man protects himself against himself, in As long as he is identified and trapped by himself, he is usually able to see only the outer walls of his “fortress of existence.” “The castle itself is invincible, and even invisible unless friends and enemies betray it and lead it through a hidden path into the castle.” And so Nietzsche shows himself to be a psychologist like Freud, a creator of a kind of applied psychology.
The title “human, superhuman” can be included in the category of what is called philosophical anthropology, because it shows the philosophical image of human beings as human beings.
There were many prominent philosophers and thinkers who used the word “human” or “human” in the title of their book. Like John Locke in The Inquiry into Human Understanding, George Berkeley in The Treatise on the Fundamentals of Human Knowledge, or David Hume in The Inquiry into Human Understanding, The Inquiry into Human Nature, and John Dewey in Nature. “And human behavior.” But in all these works, the word “human” has no value and has only a descriptive aspect. In these, intelligent, knowledgeable, possessed of mind, nature, personality and behavioral status are identified.
But over-humanism seems like a poignant and protesting title. It seems that Nietzsche chose such a phrase to warn of protest and criticism. If this book is to be read philosophically, it is certainly not an analysis, research, treatise, or research, but a severe critique whose subject matter, that is, impartial man, is not considered.
Although this work can not be considered a philosophical work, but it tells the story of a philosopher who will appear in the not too distant future. The same Nietzschean philosopher we know today.
Human, superhuman was Nietzsche’s starting point.
Part of Human, All Too Human book
Philosophers all suffer from this common shortcoming, starting their work from modern man.
And they think they can achieve their goal by analyzing him.
They inadvertently regard man as an eternal truth which, in the midst of all change, stands as a sure measure of things.
2- Introducing the book Human, All Too Human in Aparat