Biography of Genghis Khan the Mongol

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Title: Biography of Genghis Khan the Mongol

Author: Harold Lamb

Translator: Rashid Yasemi

Publisher: Sepehr Adab

Subject: Mongols, history

Age category: Adult

Cover: hardcover

Number of pages: 256 p

Language: Farsi

Qty:
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Description

The biography of Genghis Khan the Mongol is the work of Vasily Yan.

In 1898, after graduating from the University of St. Petersburg, Vasilyan packed his bags and toured Russia. After two years on tour, he traveled to England as a newspaper reporter and rode his bicycle across the entire southern part of the country. In 1901, he bought a horse and rode through the Qaraqoom desert, visiting the cities of Khiva and Bukhara, and then left for Iran, reaching the borders of India (present-day Pakistan) via Sistan and Baluchestan.

It was apparently in one of these places that he met the shepherd of the Lut Desert, who spoke to him about the tragic fate of his homeland. There, he first thought of writing a book about the terrible shadows of the past, but this idea came true years later, after the October Revolution.

In 1923, Vasiliyan became a creative writer of historical novels. In 1939, Yan finished writing Genghis Khan, his first of three novels. This historical novel is his most important work both in terms of volume and literary importance. Vasily Yan’s historical novels attracted the interest of readers in the Soviet Union and other countries. “Genghis Khan” received the State Prize of the Soviet Union and was translated into many foreign languages ​​and reprinted many times, including in England, France, Finland, Argentina, the United States and other countries.

In 1965, the Moscow-based magazine Literary Issues wrote about Genghis Khan:

“This book has earned the right to belong to classical Soviet literature without creating a false fascination with force and authority, and without any forgiveness for perversions and inaccuracies.”

Biography of Vasily Yan, author of the biography of Genghis Khan the Mongol
His father was born in Kyiv to a family of teachers from a family of Orthodox Christian priests, who graduated from the seminary and taught Latin and Greek in the university gymnasium.

In 1897, Ian of the School of History and Philosophy at St. University of Petersburg. Impressions from a two-year trip to Russia The backbone of his book is the notes of a pedestrian (1901). From 1901 to 1904 he served as a well inspector in Turkestan, where he studied Oriental languages ​​and the life of the local people. During the Russo-Japanese War, he was a military correspondent for St. Petersburg News Agency (SPA). From 1906 to 1913, he taught Latin at the first gymnasium in St. Petersburg. As a scout organizer, he met Colonel Robert Baden-Powell, who came to Russia in 1910.

In the fall of 1910, Vasily Yan introduced Pupil magazine. In 1913, he worked as a reporter at Turkey SPA. In 1914, with the outbreak of World War I – he became a SPA military correspondent in Romania. From 1918 to 1919 he worked at the Kolchak printing camp in Siberia. After the return of Soviet power in Achinsk he worked as a teacher, journalist and school principal in Uryanhae (Tuva). He later became the editor of the leading labor power newspaper in Minosinsk. This is when he first chose the nickname Ian. In 1923, he moved to Moscow.

Works of Vasily Yan
“Pedestrian Notes”, 1901
The Story of the Captain’s Story, 1907
The Story of the Spirit, 1910
“Raising of Übermensc,” 1910
“What to Do for the Children of St. Petersburg”, 1911
Emerald Afghanistan Novel
The Story of the Phoenician Ship, 1931
The story of “Lights in the Fortifications”, 1932
The story of “Spartacus”,
Mongol Attack (Triple):
The Story of Genghis Khan, 1939 (State Prize of the USSR in 1942)
The Story of Bati, 1942
The story “To the Last Sea”, published in 1955
“Commander of the Children”
“Kara Lake Mystery” “Standard”
“Yermak Company”
“In the wings of courage”
“Wendj melters”
Biography of Genghis Khan the Mongol

10 facts to read that you may not know about Genghis Khan the Mongol
10 readable facts you may not know about Genghis Khan the Mongol Historical Group: According to the Bulletin News Genghis Khan (1162-1227) founded the Mongol Empire and became one of the most terrifying conquerors of all time.

Genghis Khan conquered nearly 12 million square miles (31 million square kilometers) between 1206 and the time of his death in 1227. In this way, he has done more than any other person in the history of conquests. Genghis Khan’s atrocities left millions dead during these conquests. Of course, he modernized Mongolian culture, advocated religious freedom, and facilitated open contact between East and West. Here are 10 facts about this bloodthirsty politician and military genius.

“Genghis” was not his real name.
The man who became the “Great Khan” of the Mongols was born around 1162 AD along the banks of the OnOn River. His name was originally Temujin, which means “iron” or “blacksmith”. In 1206, he was given the honorary name of “Genghis Khan” in a tribal meeting in which he was recognized as the leader of the Mongols. Khan used to mean leader and ruler, but historians are still unsure of the origin of Genghis Khan’s name. Genghis may mean “ocean” or “only”, but is usually translated as “the greatest ruler” or “world ruler”.

– Had a rough and unusual childhood.
From an early age, Genghis Khan had to deal with the violence of life in the Mongolian steppes. When he was only nine years old, his father’s rival Tatars poisoned him. His tribe then expelled him and his family. Temujin left his mother to raise his seven children alone.

Genghis Khan grew up hunting and searching for food to survive. He may even have killed his half-brother when he was a teenager over a food dispute. Also during his adolescence, the rival tribe kidnapped both him and his young wife. In this way, Genghis Khan spent some time as a slave before escaping from them. Despite all these hardships, Genghis Khan became a formidable warrior and leader in the early 1920s. After gathering an army of his supporters, he formed an alliance with the leaders of important tribes. By 1206 he had succeeded in consolidating a confederation of steppes under his banner and turned his attention to conquest abroad.

– There is no document that shows what it definitely looked like.
Although Genghis Khan was such an influential figure, very little is known about his personal life or even his physical appearance. No portraits or sculptures of his contemporaries remain, and the little information available to historians is often contradictory or unreliable. Many describe him as tall and strong with long disheveled hair and a thick beard. Perhaps the most astonishing description is of Rashid al-Din, a 14th-century Persian chronicler who claims that Genghis had red hair and green eyes. Rashid al-Din’s report is questionable. (He never met Khan in person.) But the characteristics he listed were not unprecedented among the various Mongol tribes.

– Some of his most trusted generals were his former enemies.
Genghis Khan was eager to find talent. His criteria for promoting his officers was usually skill and experience, not class, lineage, or even past affiliation.

A famous example of this was Genghis Khan’s belief in the meritocracy of the battle of 1201 against a rival tribe called the Taijut. In this battle, Genghis Khan’s horse was shot and he was in danger of being killed. He addressed the Tajut prisoners after the battle and asked who was responsible. The soldier stood up bravely and admitted that it was his job to shoot. Because of the shooter’s audacity, Genghis made him an army officer and later nicknamed him “Jebe” or “Arrow” for their first meeting on the battlefield. The mantle with the famous general Sabatai (SUBUTAI) became the greatest Mongol commanders during their conquests in Asia and Europe.

– Most of the time, he did the job completely.
Genghis Khan often gave other kings the opportunity to join the Mongol rule peacefully, but he did not hesitate to draw his sword on any community he opposed. One of his most famous campaigns was carried out in 1219 with the aim of taking revenge. This campaign took place after the king of the Khwarezm dynasty broke his treaty with the Mongols. Genghis had offered the king of Khwarezmshahi a valuable trade agreement to exchange goods along the Silk Road, but he became furious when the first Mongol envoys were killed, and in return sent a full force of Mongol tribes to the lands ruled by the Khwarezmshahis. Iran sent.

As a result of this war, millions of people were killed and the Khwarezm Shah empire was completely destroyed, but Khan did not stop there. He started a war with Shi Xia Tangat. The Tangats (an ancient ethnic group in China) disobeyed his order to send troops to attack Khorazm.
After pursuing the Tangats and looting their capital, Genghis Khan ordered the execution of all members of the Tangat royal family for disobeying his order.

Genghis Khan was responsible for the deaths of 40 million people.
It is not possible to say with certainty how many people were killed during the Mongol conquest, but many historians estimate that number at about 40 million. A medieval census showed that China’s population declined by tens of millions during Genghis Khan’s lifetime. Millions of Iranians were also killed during Genghis Khan’s war with the Khwarezmshahis.

Mongol invasions are said to have reduced the world’s population by as much as 11 percent.

– He tolerated different religions and sects.
Unlike many of the founders of empires, Genghis Khan accepted the diversity of religions in the newly conquered territories. He enacted laws on religious freedom and even exempted places of worship from tax exemptions. This tolerance had a political aspect, and that was that Genghis Khan knew that happy people were less likely to revolt, but at the same time the Mongols generally had an extremely liberal attitude towards religion.

While Genghis and many other Mongols had magical beliefs and believed that the spirits of the heavens, winds and mountains were revered, the people of the steppes had a variety of beliefs, including Nestorian, Buddhist, Muslim, and so on. Genghis Khan had a personal interest in spirituality. He is known to have prayed in his tent for several days before major campaigns, often discussing the details of their religions with leaders of different religions.
In old age, even the Taoist leader summoned Qiu Chuji to his camp. These two are thought to have had long conversations about immortality and philosophy.

Genghis Khan created one of the first international postal systems.
The Mongols had their own extensive communication network. One of Genghis Khan’s first decrees was to establish a courier service known as Yam. Yum consists of a series of well-organized post houses. There were also a series of waypoints throughout the empire. Government riders stopped at these stations every few kilometers for rest or refreshment. In this way, they could travel up to 500 kilometers a day.

This system made the transfer of goods and information with unprecedented speed. Yam also used military and political advances, and a large network of spies and scouts were on the move. Yum also helped protect foreign officials and businessmen during their travels. In later years, this famous service was used by the likes of Marco Polo.

– No one knows how Genghis Khan died or where he was buried.
Of all the riddles that surround Genghis Khan’s life, perhaps the most famous is how his life ended. Tradition has it that he died in 1227 from injuries sustained from a fall from a horse, but other sources attribute his death to everything from malaria to an arrow injuring his knee. One narration even says that he was killed while trying to rape a Chinese princess.

In any case, he died and his burial place remained a mystery. According to legend, all those who attended his funeral were killed, then horses were repeatedly passed over his grave to help hide the grave. His body is most likely in or around a mountain in Mongolia called Barkhan Khaldun, but its exact location remains unknown to this day.

– The Soviet Union tried to erase him from the memory of the Mongolian people.
Genghis Khan is now known as the national hero and father and founder of Mongolia, but during the Soviet rule in the twentieth century, mention of his name was banned in the hope that all traces of Mongol nationalism would be erased. Thus, stories about him were removed from school textbooks, and people were barred from building a shrine in his hometown of Khentii. Eventually, after Mongolia’s independence in the early 1990s, Genghis Khan’s position in the country was restored and became a major subject of popular art and culture. Genghis Khan is named after the country’s main airport in Ulaanbaatar, and his portrait can even be seen in Mongolian currency.

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