History of Iran from the beginning to the present


Title: History of Iran (from the beginning to the present, from the Medes to the beginning of Pahlavi)

Author: Hamid Hashemi

Publisher: Culture and Pen

Subject: History of Iran

Age category: Adult

Cover: hardcover

Number of pages: 424 pages / illustrated

Language: Farsi



The history of Iran from the beginning to the present is the work of Hamid Hashemi.

Familiarity with the history of Iran

When we talk about the history of Iran, we must pay attention to the point whether it refers to the history of tribes and peoples who have lived in the political borders of present-day Iran or the history of tribes and peoples who call themselves in some way Iranian and They have lived in the geography that includes Iran today and the lands that have historically been part of Greater Iran (Iranshahr).

Sometimes the history of Iran begins with the arrival of the Aryans, from whom Iran is also named, to the plateau of Iran. But this does not mean that the plateau of Iran was deserted or civilized before the arrival of the Aryans. Before the arrival of the Aryans on the plateau of Iran, very ancient civilizations had blossomed and withered in this place, and some were still flourishing.

The history of Iran is basically divided into two general parts, the history of Iran before Islam and the history of Iran after Islam, which are also divided into smaller parts.

History of Iran from the beginning to the present

History of Iran before Islam:
It is divided into three parts:
Iran before the Aryans
– The migration of Aryans to Iran
-Ancient Persia

History of Iran before the Aryans
Before the Aryans, various tribes lived in different parts of the Iranian plateau. In the history of Iran before the Aryans, the civilizations of the burnt city (in Sistan), the civilization of Ilam (in the north of Khuzestan), the civilization of Jiroft (in Kerman), the civilization of the inhabitants of Silk hill (in Kashan) ), The Urartu civilization (in Azerbaijan), the Gyan hills (in Nahavand) and the Cassian civilizations (in Kermanshah and Lorestan) and the Tapurs in Tabaristan (Mazandaran) were in Iran.

The greatest civilization in the history of Iran was the Elamite state, whose land was in the southwest of Iran and more or less corresponds to Khuzestan. The capital of Elam was the city of Susa, the relics of which have been found in this city. The various divisions in Elam apparently had separate governments, each with its own kings.

These four regions were Avan, Anshan, Simesh and Shush. The Elamite state has often been at war with the more developed Mesopotamian states, namely the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. This period became one of the largest forces in the region in periods of Iranian history. Since the emergence of the Persian emperors (550 BC), Elam has been one of the tributaries of Iran. The city of Susa was also a rich and glorious city at this time. The Elamite language was one of the three languages ​​in which the royal texts of Iran were written.

History of Iran from the beginning to the present

Aryan migration to Iran
The Aryans are a large branch of the white race, whose original territory was probably from the north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the rivers Sihon and Jeyhun. They later moved partly to Europe and in groups to Iran and India. As a result, Asian peoples and their languages ​​are called Indo-European. Aryan means noble. The Aryans of India and Iran have lived together for a long time and after a long time they separated and before the separation, they had common myths and social organization and language.

In the history books of Iran, the time of the arrival of the Aryans to Iran is written as some 2,000 BC and some from the 14th century to the 6th century BC. When the Aryans reached the plateau of Iran, they first exterminated the native people but then exploited them. After entering Iran, the Aryans were divided into different tribes, the most important of which are the Medes, Parthians and Persians. The name Iran is derived from the name of the Aryans and means the land of the Aryans.

History of Iran from the beginning to the present

History of ancient Iran
The history of ancient Iran is considered to be the period of the formation of the Medes until the end of the Sassanid rule and the Arab invasion of Iran.

The Medes are about 708 to 550 BC
The Medes were an Iranian ethnic group of Aryan descent who settled in the western part of the Iranian plateau. The land of the Medes included the western part of the Iranian plateau. The land of Azerbaijan in the northwest of the Iranian plateau was known as Little Med and the rest of the Zagros region was known as Great Med. The capital of the Medes is Hegmatane. They were able to establish the first state in the history of Iran in the early seventh century BC. The Medes’s government was abolished by Cyrus in 550 BC, and Persian rule passed to the Persians.

History of Iran from the beginning to the present

Achaemenids – 550 to 330 BC
The Achaemenid ancestor of this dynasty subjugated the Persian tribes. After him, his son, his son, became king in Anshan (east of Shushtar). Later, they made Pasargadae their center. By the time of Cyrus III, six kings ruled from this dynasty.

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