why nations fall: the origins of power, properity and poverty»: the origins of power, properness and poverty” was published in 2012. This book examines the roots of poverty and power in nations and looks at economics through the lens of politics. Developing countries is another important topic that this book focuses on.
Why do nations fail?
We live in a place in history where human life has become much more complex than its predecessors. Economic and political relations and the destiny of individuals are formed at the macro level, and it is the great decisions of governments that make the lives of their nations. One of the most important and serious issues that human beings are involved in today is the economy. Economy is a characteristic that determines the standard of living in a country and plays an essential role in people’s satisfaction with life.
Economic crises around the world have been the root of many revolutions, and governments that have been able to provide economic prosperity have largely been able to satisfy their nations and spend years of calm and carefree years. Darun Ajamoglu and James Robinson are world-renowned economists who have written a book entitled Why Nations Fail. This book analyzes the role of economics in the global game.
About the book why nations fall; World Economic Analysis
Ahmad Maidari, an economist and Deputy Minister of Social Welfare at the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare, wrote a detailed introduction to the translation of Why Nations Fail in 1992 into Persian. In this introduction, he has analyzed the book’s topics and believes that reading this book is very useful for politicians, especially politicians in developing countries. “The problem for politicians is generally not a lack of science and knowledge,” Midri said in part. The dilemma of maintaining political power is through sacrificing the public interest or securing the public interest and the gradual loss of political power …. A group of economists, including Mankur Olson and Douglas North, like the authors of this book, emphasize the importance of the politician. Have.”
An overview of the chapters in the book Why Nations Fail
The main text of the book begins with a preface in which the authors discuss the subject and content of the book and their purpose for writing it. This premise emphasizes that the root of dissatisfaction is poverty and sees the key to solving the world’s problems in the economy. In the following book, the authors describe their ideas in fifteen chapters. The titles of the chapters in Why Nations Fail are as follows:
Chapter One: Very Close, Very Different
Chapter Two: Theories That Do Not Answer
Chapter Three: The Production of Poverty and Wealth
Chapter 4: Small Differences and Decisive Moments 1: The Weight of History
Chapter 5: I have seen the future, and it is fruitful: growth dominated by exploitative institutions
Chapter Six: Separation
Chapter 7: The Turning Point
Chapter Eight: Not in Our Land: Barriers to Development
Chapter 9: Reverse Development
Chapter 10: “Welfare Dispersion”
Chapter Eleven: The Evolutionary Cycle
Chapter Twelve: The Evil Cycle
Chapter Thirteen: Why Nations Fail Today
Chapter Fourteen: In Breaking the Mold
Chapter 15: “Understanding Poverty and Wealth”
At the end of the book, the sources used in the book are listed separately and in detail so that the interested reader can have more and more complete studies about whatever he wants. The following are the sources of the maps used in the book so that the information of the book is as documented as possible for the reader.
Book Reviews why nations fall?
The book Why Nations Fail has been able to attract a lot of attention around the world. In Iran, many experts have paid attention to this book and various reviews and opinions have been published about it. “Ali Reza Gholi”, the author of the book “Sociology of Elite”, said in a book review of Why Nations Fail: “The book Why Nations Fail has not proceeded with specific assumptions and has a weakness that ignores geography and looks at historical culture. does not.”
The famous American billionaire Bill Gates has also published his critiques and opinions on why nations fail. “I found the authors’ analysis vague and simple,” the Apple owner’s critique of the book reads. Beyond pervasive political and economic institutions versus mining. Despite the existence of history and region, they have ignored all other influential factors. “The key terms and concepts are not really defined, and they never explain how a country can move in the direction of having more inclusive institutions.”
Book Prizes and Honors Why do nations fail?
The book Why Nations Fail has also won awards. In 2012, the book was nominated for the Financial Times and McKinsey Economics Book of the Year Award and won the Paddy Power and General Politics political book award.
He also won the 2013 Lionel Gelber and Arthur Ross Awards for why nations fall.
About the authors; From Darwin Ajam Aghlo to James Robinson
Darun Ajamoglu is an American economist born in Turkey in 1967. He completed his primary education in Turkey and went to England to pursue higher education. He studied at York University and received his PhD from the London School of Economics. A year later, Ajamoglu was employed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has been a professor at the university since 1993.
Darun Ajamoglu has been a full member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2006. The economist has also won several awards, the most important of which is the John Bates Clark Medal.
Darun Ajamoglu also has various books and articles in the field of economics, including “Economic Roots of Dictatorship and Democracy” and “Introduction to Modern Economic Growth”.
James Robinson is an English politician and economist born in 1960. He began his university education at the London School of Economics and received his PhD from Yale University in the United States.
Dr. Robinson has taught at many universities, including the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Melbourne. He also worked at Harvard University from 2004 to 2015 and is currently a professor at the University of Chicago.
He has also published books during his career. Among the works of James Robinson are The Role of Elites in Economic Progress, The Historical Progress of Africa, and The Natural Experiments of History.
In a part of the book, we read why nations fall
38 degree economy
In the summer of 1945, as World War II was coming to an end, Japanese colonization on the Korean Peninsula collapsed. Less than a month after Japan’s unconditional surrender on August 15 of that year, Korea split into two spheres of influence in a 38-degree orbit. The south was ruled by the United States and the north by Russia. In June 1950, when South Korea was occupied by the South Korean army, a tense peace and Cold War between the two superpowers gave way to a bloody Korean War. At first, North Korea organized large-scale attacks and captured the southern capital, Seoul, but was pushed back by the fall.
It was then that Huang Pyong Wu and his brother separated. Huang Pyong Won was lucky to hide and escape falling into the hands of the North Korean army. He settled in the South and worked as a pharmacist. His brother was a doctor in Seoul treating wounded South Korean soldiers. With North Korea retreating, he was taken north. The two, who separated in 1950, met for the first time in Seoul after a long 50-year separation in 2000; That is, after the two governments finally agreed to implement a limited plan for family reunification.
Huang Pin Won’s brother was hired as a doctor in the Air Force, which was a good job in a military dictatorship. But in North Korea, even those with special privileges were not defined.
Another part of the book why nations fall
The people of Nogales, Arizona, can go about their daily lives without fear of endangering their safety or the constant fear of theft, property confiscation and similar threats. They also see the government as a clear representative of the government, despite all the inefficiencies and some cases of corruption, which is as important as living without fear. They can change the mayor, governor, members of Congress and senators by their own vote. They also have the right to vote in the presidential election, which determines who will run their country. For them, democracy is considered a matter of course in social life.
On the south side of the fence, just a few steps away, the situation is completely different. Although the people of Nogales Sonora live in the relatively affluent part of Mexico, the average household income there is about one-third that of Nogales Arizona. There, most adults have not finished high school and many teenagers do not go to school. Mothers are concerned about the high infant mortality rate, and given the poor quality of public health, the lower life expectancy is not surprising.
They still do not have access to a wide range of public services. The roads south of the fence are in poor condition. Law and order is worse. The high crime rate and starting a business is a risky move. In the latter case, residents are not only at risk of theft, but setting up a new business and obtaining all the necessary permits requires paying bribes to all stakeholders and a tireless effort. Residents of Nogales Sonora deal with the corruption and incompetence of politicians on a daily basis.
Unlike their northern neighbors, democracy is a very new experience for them. By the time of the political reforms in 2000, Nogals Sonora, just like in other parts of Mexico, was under the corrupt control of the Institutional Revolutionary Party VII.
How can the two halves of a city be so different? There is no difference between them in geography, climate or the type of common diseases in the region, because germs are not restricted to travel between the American and Mexican parts of the city. The health situation is very different in the two cities, but it has nothing to do with environmental diseases; Rather, it is due to the lack of proper hygiene and proper medical care for the people of the south of Hesar.
2- Introducing the book why nations fall in Aparat