The complete court of Iraj Mirza


Title: The Complete Court of Iraj Mirza

By: Mohammad Jafar Mahboob

Language: Farsi

Categories: ,


The complete divan of Iraj Mirza, known as “Jalal al-Malak” and “Fakhr al-Sho’ra”, was one of the prominent Iranian poets in the constitutional era (late Qajar and early Pahlavi eras) and one of the pioneers of modernity in Persian literature.

Iraj Mirza has written poetry in various forms and his most valuable poems have critical, social, emotional and educational themes. Iraj’s poetry is simple and fluent and sometimes contains slang words and speeches, and his poems were among the poems influencing the poetry of the constitutional period.

Biography of Iraj Mirza
He was the son of Sadr al-Sho’ra Gholam Hossein Mirza, the grandson of Iraj, the son of Fath Ali Shah and the descendant of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. He was educated at the Dar al-Fonun School in Tabriz, where he learned Arabic and French. When Amir Nezam Grossi established the Mozaffari School in Tabriz, Iraj Mirza became the deputy head of that school, and in this position he took over the management of the monthly newspaper Vargheh (the first student publication in Tabriz).

At the age of nineteen, he was nicknamed “Iraj bin Sadr al-Sho’ra”. However, he soon resigned as a court poet and took up various government jobs, including working in the Ministry of Culture (education at the time). Then he was hired by the Customs Department and after the constitution, he served in various government jobs, including the Ministry of Interior, as the Governor of Abadeh and the Deputy Governor of Isfahan.
Iraj Mirza died of a heart attack at home in Tehran. Iraj Mirza was fluent in Persian, Azerbaijani Turkish, Arabic and French, and he also knew Russian and wrote Nastaliq script well. The tomb of Zahir al-Dawla became the eternal home of Iraj Mirza

Iraj belonged to a group of Qajar princes who did not play an effective role in ruling the country, but nevertheless retained their belonging to their lineage and aristocracy. Iraj, like his father Sadr al-Sho’ra, sometimes suffered from poverty and hardship, and therefore sympathy and sympathy with the poor and the spirit of protesting against social inequalities were alive in him.

Due to his extravagant nature, constant travels and frequent job changes, he was sometimes forced to praise the nobility and aristocracy against his will, but he expressed his nostalgia and disgust in a gentle but effective way.
Those who have been in close contact with Iraj have said that he was a dignified and dignified man in his daily life and spoke the word pen in public, but when he was in private circles and among friends, this privacy was suddenly lost and turned into a joke. Been. A Russian orientalist who met him during Iraj’s lifetime says of him:

“He was a man of black, burnt, thin, and mediocre, and patient in behavior and speech. “Iraj’s poems come to life when he reads them himself.”

Political views

Iraj, along with the Queen of Poets Bahar, was the loudest voice in the poetry of the constitutional period. Unlike Bahar, who viewed constitutionalism from a patriotic point of view, he was more critical of social relations than an aristocratic bourgeois. While he considered the masses to lack political consciousness and social understanding, he advised his friends to avoid danger with the powerful and to pursue expediency.

Although Iraj boasted of his princeness, there are verses left in his critique and slander of Muhammad Ali Shah and Ahmad Shah; Thus, without unwarranted love, hatred, and prejudice, he made the character of intellectualism and free thought his profession.
So much so that in the uprising of Colonel Mohammad Taghikhan Pesyan, he was considered one of his advisers. He conservatively advocated involvement in politics to the extent that it did not harm personal interests; But at the same time, patriotic ideas were emerging.

Iraj Eskandari who had seen the atmosphere of that time. Later in his memoirs, he explained that the mystic songs of this national and freedom-loving Iranian poet had a tremendous effect on the listeners and moved them in favor of the republic.

Religious perspective
Iraj had an opposite position against the hijab. This position can be easily seen in the “Caravanserai” section. This issue has been discussed in various places in Iraj’s Divan, and this position has led to opposition from two different groups, Iraj and his thoughts: a group that opposed Iraj in principle and ideology due to religious inclinations, and a group that seeks a political opportunity to strike. Were to him. However, with the coming to power of Reza Shah’s secular government, the second group separated from the opposition and became his supporters.

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