Being and Time are an imperfect work. After presenting an introduction to the concept of existence, Heidegger wanted to explain its main issues in the second volume, but never had the opportunity to complete it.
Martin Heidegger is a twentieth-century German philosopher who is well-known for his influence on various fields of knowledge. The biography of every contemporary philosopher we look at has been influenced in some way by Heidegger’s works and ideas. One of Heidegger’s main concerns was how man is a being and what existence means. He has given the result of his reflections in this field in the book of Existence and Time.
Investigating the relationship between time and existence
Heidegger offers an analysis of human existence in Being and Time. According to Heidegger, existence does not have a complex and ambiguous concept that cannot be described, on the contrary, existence is very simple and tangible, but only a few people with a pure nature and clear vision can understand it. For Heidegger, existence is neither God nor is it summed up in the universe. But existence is dependent on time, and man is a temporal being.
Heidegger considers the concept of death and the nature of human attenuation to be the key to understanding all philosophical concepts. Man needs to interpret and explain phenomena at any time and place in the face of things. For Heidegger, truth is what man himself realizes from his presence in space and time. Such a world is not objective and is formed more on the basis of human experience.
Man is not the creator of the universe, but he finds himself in the universe. According to Heidegger, nature is also within the universe and has no precedence over man. He disagrees with his earlier philosophers, who saw man as a creature of nature and described existence in terms of qualitative and quantitative concepts.
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) was born into a religious family in Germany. He had completed his primary education and became interested in thinking by studying the books of ancient Greek philosophy. Heidegger dropped out of theology to study philosophy. Heidegger was for a time a student and assistant to the philosopher and founder of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl.
It was not long before the rise of the fascist state changed the social situation in Germany. According to the ideology of the fascist regime, Jewish professors were not allowed to teach or work at the university. Husserl was therefore sentenced to deportation from Germany. At this time, Heidegger, who had been appointed president of the university, took no action to save his professor. Heidegger’s reaction and his willingness to support Hitler’s government had dire consequences for Heidegger. Years after the collapse of Hitler’s racist regime, Heidegger’s face is still shrouded in aura of astonishment and hatred.
An overview of Heidegger’s works and writing style
Influenced by the philosophies of Kant, Descartes and Hegel, Heidegger began to write numerous philosophical works. The total of Heidegger’s works is more than one hundred and six volumes, of which Existence and Time are the most famous. The publication of this book in 1927 brought great fame to its author. This book is an extract of Heidegger’s reflections, the signs of which can be seen in his other works as well.
One of the hallmarks of Heidegger’s writing style was his distancing from everyday language and his use of more complex words and linguistic structure to achieve a language appropriate to his ideas. Linguistic deconstruction has made his works more difficult to read and has led to misunderstandings and conflicting interpretations.
Today, more than ninety years after the publication of his famous book, Existence and Time, thinkers are still examining his work and writing numerous books about its profound meanings. To understand existence and time, it is best to read Heidegger’s treatise The Concept of Time, which divides time into three categories: everyday, natural, and universal, and describes each category in detail.
One of Heidegger’s most important works in philosophy is to re-read the philosophical works of the past in a different way, in which he critiques the theories of great philosophers such as Kant and Hegel. “What is Metaphysics?”, “Introduction to Metaphysics”, “Philosophy of Philosophy”, “In the Way of Speech”, “What Do They Think?” And “Nietzsche” is one of Heidegger’s works.
Martin Heidegger’s thoughts and opinions
Heidegger’s ideas can be examined from various angles, including ontology, basic ontology, psychology, and the humanities, and the rejection of Heidegger’s influence in various schools of thought can be traced back to the postmodern era. One of the most controversial issues in Heidegger is the extent to which Heidegger was influenced by Christianity. Especially since his father was a religious man and introduced Heidegger to religious and biblical issues as a child. There is still disagreement about Heidegger’s theism.
Although Heidegger believed in unity, his anti-religious and theological reflections cast doubt on his acceptance of faith in God. Explaining the concept of death is one of the topics that well illustrates Heidegger’s theological view. According to Heidegger, death is also a way of being. As soon as man realizes his existence, he is confronted with the primacy of death over his nature. In his view, insisting on eternal life after death is futile.
The emptiness and emptiness of the world also spreads to death. For Heidegger, death is a possibility that controls all other possibilities and is a kind of extension of life. But when a person equates death with nothingness or nothingness, it causes anxiety and apprehension in him. Fear of facing death is one of Heidegger’s favorite phenomena, which forces man to make choices about his existence in the face of existence.
Heidegger and Existentialism
Some consider Heidegger to be an existentialist thinker. Heidegger’s ambiguous language gives his works a multifaceted aspect that can be interpreted in different ways. Existence is one of the main themes of Heidegger’s works. In his works, he has written about the original and non-original existence. According to Heidegger, one of the most important differences between objects and human beings is in their existential nature. In the case of objects, their nature precedes their existence, and man designs and constructs objects for specific uses.
In the case of man, the opposite is true, and his being precedes his nature. In this sense, Heidegger agrees with the existentialists. But in the face of the question of existence, he goes to man and considers him the only being who is able to understand existence.
To expand his reflections, he goes to a set of common human behaviors and daily habits and pays attention to how he is and exists. According to Heidegger, these behaviors and habits are the creators of human situations and choices without being clearly exposed. In his works, he uses the word “Dasein” instead of human. Dasein means a person who is aware of his own existence and has an understanding of himself and his relationship with the universe.
Heidegger and Anthropology
Heidegger’s views on man and his Dasein’s idea revolutionized the foundations of anthropology. Heidegger is also known as a phenomenologist. Philosophy in the twentieth century took a different direction with the work of phenomenologists such as Husserl, and themes such as existential philosophy, individual originality, and phenomenology received more attention.
Phoenix Publishing Group has published the book Existence and Time translated by Siavash Jamadi. Siavash Jamadi, born in 1931 in Tehran, is a graduate of Judicial Law, English Literature and Philosophy. He won the 22nd Book of the Year Award for his book “A Journey in Kafka’s World” and the translation of Heidegger’s philosophical work “What is Metaphysics” in the 23rd Book of the Year Award. The book Existence and Time, translated by Abdolkarim Rashidian and published by Ney, has also been released.
In a part of the book, we read about existence and time
“The question that Heidegger raises in existence and time is the ‘question of existence,’ that is, the question that has stirred the thoughts of philosophers since the beginning of philosophy.” Therefore, this book is not new in terms of its subject. But the “modern” aspect of Heidegger’s way of examining this issue and defining human existence (Dasein) as the gateway to the knowledge of existence is that after its original and dazzling beginnings in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy, even the question of it has been forgotten. Is.
Dasein’s analysis of existence through “possible” constructs called “existential” is called “fundamental ontology”, which is the condition of the inherent possibility of all ontologies. Because Dasein is the being from whom every philosophical question originates and returns.
Hence many issues of philosophy such as prudence, self-existence and otherness, world, place and time, death, etc. take different formulations. “This work has influenced the philosophical atmosphere of the twentieth century and has inspired many of the most prominent poststructuralist thinkers, such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.”
2- Introducing the book Being and Time in Aparat