Philosophy: the basics is by Nigel Warburton.
What is philosophy? Who is called a philosopher? What is the way to enter and learn philosophy? In ancient Greece, people one day decided to think differently about their existence and life and to think about the ways of life. “Religion” was introduced to human beings to provide “answers” to human beings, and “philosophy” entered human life to study and design “whys”. But the two are not in conflict with each other and sometimes complement each other, as many philosophers were religious people.
Philosophy is a kind of thinking about life and having a critical view of the issues of existence, and it is more of an art of living that can act thoughtfully and critically in the face of all issues of human life. Nigel Warburton, author of The Alphabet of Philosophy, tries to ask philosophical questions in very simple language and to teach useful material about them. The book is very useful for beginners and unfamiliar with philosophy.
Summary of Philosophy: the basics
The Alphabet of Philosophy, written by Nigel Warburton and translated by Massoud Olya, tries to teach complex problems in simple language, unlike other philosophical books that are very complex and heavy. At the same time, in this book, we are not dealing with the history of philosophy, and in order to teach philosophy, we are not going to get acquainted with important philosophers and know their opinions, and therefore it is different from other books that tried to teach philosophy in a simple way. For example, the book “The Sufi World” written by “Justin Garder” examines its history for teaching philosophy and introduces us to the ideas of great philosophers, but the book “Alphabet of Philosophy” raises fundamental questions and tries to form critical thinking. To teach philosophy to everyday life.
Introduction to the book with the question “What is philosophy?” It begins and the author tries to provide a comprehensive definition of philosophy. Wuberton defines philosophy as follows: “It is a way of thinking about certain kinds of questions. “The most distinctive feature of philosophy is the use of logical reasoning.” He also says of the works of philosophers: “Philosophers typically deal with reasoning: they either bring forth arguments, or critique the arguments of others, or do both.” .
“In addition, philosophers analyze concepts and remove ambiguity and confusion from their faces.” After introducing and defining philosophy, Whaberton gives his reasons for answering the question, “Why read philosophy?” Provides. The author believes that since philosophy deals with fundamental issues such as the proof of God and creation, it will definitely be useful to read it. Another reason why the author states the need to study philosophy is “learning to think” and that by studying philosophy people learn how to think in a wide range of subjects. In addition, Warburton compares reading philosophy to the game of numbers and describes it as very enjoyable.
After the introduction, the author begins to ask philosophical questions and elaborates on them in 7 chapters. Chapter 1 with the question “Can you prove the existence of God?” starts. In this chapter, the reasons for the existence of God are stated and criticized by philosophers, especially Western philosophers. Many philosophers, based on their theories, have tried to provide logical reasons for the necessity of God’s existence, many of which can strengthen beliefs in God. Of course, in this chapter, the author does not try to prove or disprove the existence of God, only the theories of philosophers are presented, and more efforts are made to teach critical thinking as an art for living.
“How do we distinguish right from wrong in the realm of morality?” Is the question that forms the second chapter. In this chapter, evil is introduced to endless solutions to evil and defense based on the reader’s will and faith.
The third chapter, entitled Morality and Morality, discusses and critiques Christian and Kantian morality, as well as Sudaneseism and consequentialism. The question of the third chapter is “Should we sometimes break the law?” And the content revolves around this question.
“Is the world really what you imagine it to be?” It begins the fourth chapter of the book and contains useful ideas about the outside world. Science, mind, and art are the themes of the final three chapters of the book, with the questions “Do you know what science is?”, “Is your mind separate from your body?” And “Can you define art?” These are the basic questions of these chapters.
“The Alphabet of Philosophy is still the best book for an introductory introduction to philosophy,” says Stephen La, author of The Philosophy Club. “Warburton is precise and patient, and more importantly, he writes very simply and clearly, so there is no better book to get acquainted with philosophy than the alphabet of philosophy.”
Nigel Warburton; Narrator of philosophy in simple language
Nigel Warburton is an English philosopher born in 1962. He received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Bristol and then his doctorate at Darwin College, University of Cambridge. Warburton worked as a lecturer at the University of Nottingham before entering the Faculty of Philosophy at the Open University. In 2013, he resigned as senior lecturer at the Open University. Warburton is best known as the author of Easy Philosophy books for the general public.
His most important books are “Alphabet of Philosophy”, “Classical Philosophy” and “Thinking from Zero to One Hundred”. He has also been the editor of Philosophy: A Preliminary Study. “Studying Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Desire” is a work by Nigel co-authored by other authors. He also has a variety of photographs in the field of photography, specifically about the English photographer Bill Brandt. Nigel Warburton also wrote the biography of the modern architect Erno Goldfinger.
In addition to writing, Warburton works in other fields. He regularly teaches philosophy at the Tate Modern Gallery, and writes the monthly column “Everyday Philosophy” in Prospect magazine. The “Virtual Philosophy” blog is also run by Nigel and publishes useful philosophical material. He and David Edmunds produce a blog podcast that interviews philosophers. He has also published a book on classical philosophy in audio form. Nigel is also the author of The Guardian.
About the translator, Massoud Olya
Massoud Olia is a translator and researcher of philosophy who was born in 1975. He first received his bachelor’s degree in Persian literature from the University of Tehran and then received his master’s degree in philosophy from Shahid Beheshti University. He also spent his doctorate in philosophy at the Institute of Wisdom and Philosophy under the guidance of Dr. Abdolkarim Rashidian. He devoted his doctoral dissertation to the ideas of the contemporary French philosopher Levinas, and completed his doctoral dissertation entitled “The Condition of the Ethics of Ethics in Levinas’s Thought.” He is currently working in the Art Philosophy Department of the University of the Arts.
The Alphabet of Philosophy by Nigel Warburton, translated by Massoud Olya, has been published by Phoenix Publications.
We read in parts of the book
Is philosophy difficult?
Philosophy is often considered a difficult discipline. Philosophy faces a variety of difficulties, some of which, of course, can be avoided. First of all, it is a fact that many of the issues that professional philosophers deal with require the use of high-level information in the field of abstract and theoretical thinking.
However, this is true of almost all intellectual pursuits: in this respect, philosophy is no different from physics, literary criticism, computer programming, geology, mathematics, or history. As is the case with these and other areas of research, we should not excuse the difficulty of fundamental innovations in this field, and we should not allow ordinary people to become aware of the progress that has been made, nor to prevent their fundamental methods. Learn.
However, there is another difficulty with philosophy that is different from Looney’s and can be avoided. Philosophers are not always good writers. Many of them are extremely useless in conveying their opinions and thoughts. Sometimes this is due to the fact that they are only interested in targeting a very small group of professional readers.
About the Philosophy: the basics
Many books have been written on philosophy; But what makes the alphabet of philosophy different? The book of the alphabet of philosophy is like a textbook; Of course, not the kind of books that put a lot of information on paper in a small space; Rather, the author of this book takes the reader by the hand and opens the door to the world of philosophy for him, and introduces him step by step, in simple language, to the basic ideas of philosophy: ideas that have occupied the minds of thinkers for years. .
In this book, Warburton seeks to answer many of humanity’s profound questions: How can we prove the existence of God? What is the difference between right and wrong? Where is the restriction on freedom of expression? What is the meaning of scientific knowledge? Are mind and body different? How is art defined? How should animals be treated?
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