Title: Ethics: The evolution of ethics in the West from ancient times to modern times

Author: Aristotle

Translator: Reza Mashayekhi

Publisher: Look

Subject: Ethics, ancient texts / ethics, history

Age category: Adult

Number of pages: 552

Language: Farsi



Ethics is one of the oldest social sciences and has been associated with humans since the beginning of human civilization. Politicians, scientists, and artists have each praised moral virtues in their own language.

Aristotle’s book on ethics
For this reason, ethics can be considered a science related to thoughts and advice resulting from daily events in which each human being participates. Each of the philosophers had a different approach to the issue of ethics. Aristotle considered ethics to be part of political science.

Therefore, according to his theories, the science of ethics is first of all individual and then social. He believes that man needs morality to achieve spiritual happiness and perfection. Aristotle generally considered morality to be the interface between extremism and heresy.

About the book of ethics
The book of ethics, compiled and translated by Reza Mashayekhi, has described the time line and the evolution of ethics in the West. This book begins the history of ethics from the ancient world and describes its evolution up to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The book of ethics is written based on a series of observations and arguments that are embedded in the life of every human being.

The modern age and the advent of advanced technologies have caused the arrogance of the human species and deprives itself of any moral teachings and spiritual teachings.
For this reason, the study of the history of ethics is one of the necessities of the modern world. The book of ethics in ten different sections has addressed issues such as goodness and happiness, justice, friendship, happiness. In addition to the main topics, this book has four appendices on the subject of the history of science.

Aristotle was the first teacher of Western philosophy
Aristotle is one of the most influential philosophers before Christ. He can be considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy. Historians estimate his birth to be 384 BC and believe he lived to be 63 years old. Aristotle was born into a wealthy family in the Greek city of Stagirai.

His father was the family physician of Amintas II, and they lived in the royal palace. Aristotle moved to Athens at the age of 17. The city of Athens at that time was considered a symbol of Greek science and knowledge. Aristotle entered Plato’s academy to study the common sciences of the time and studied there for about twenty years.

Aristotle had a special talent for acquiring various sciences. He had mastered the theoretical sciences with incredible speed. It is worth mentioning that Plato names his special disciple, Aristotle, with different titles such as “highly read” or “school intellect”. Aristotle was also a constant companion of Plato.
Some believe that there were deep differences between the teacher and the student, and that Aristotle left the roots of Plato’s academy based on these differences. But historians believe that these statements are not official and that the two had a good relationship until the end of Plato’s life. Aristotle left Athens after Plato’s death and moved to Assos.

Aristotle’s ideas and scientific life can be divided into three time periods. His first academic year was at the age of 17 to 37 at Plato’s Academy.
His second academic term lasted about 12 years and ended with the reign of Alexander. Aristotle’s third academic year began at the age of 49. During this period, he was the head of the Peripatetic school. The third scientific period ended with the death of Aristotle.

Thoughts and works of Aristotle
There is much disagreement about the number of Aristotle’s treatises and books. Some have estimated the number of his works at up to 400 books, while others believe that the number of his works is 92.

But in general, his books, treatises and pamphlets can be classified into two groups. The first group is public or foreign works that are intended for the general public and have been written outside the academy. This work by Aristotle is written in colloquial language and in the style of Plato.

The second group is private or internal works that are dedicated only to the environment of the academy and no one knew about their existence outside the academy.

The researches of this prominent philosopher were comprehensive and complete. He deals with various issues such as biology
He studied astronomy, epistemology, ethics and metaphysics. He has written his thoughts on various social issues, such as life, death, short life, old age and youth. Most of Aristotle’s political and social works are gone, or only a small part of them remain.

Aristotle’s conversational writing style had a great influence on the style and context of later philosophers. The tone and language of Aristotle’s scientific works are in contrast to his political, social and philosophical works. Aristotle’s scientific books are written in a dry and precise language and dialogue has no role in it.
Among the most important surviving works of Aristotle are the books “The Ethics of Nicomacheanism”, “The Ethics of Eudemus”, “The Great Ethics”, and “On Virtues and Vices”. There are various speculations about the authenticity of the last two books.

About Reza Mashayekhi, translator and writer
Reza Mashayekhi was born in 1284 in Tehran. He graduated from the Dar al-Fonun High School and immigrated to Belgium to continue his studies in civil engineering and road construction. After returning to Iran, he was hired by the Ministry of Roads.

Reza Mashayekhi, in addition to teaching at the Tehran Technical College and working in road construction, is also involved in translation. This pioneering writer has translated valuable works into Persian. His translations have been published in most of his works under the name of Farhad Mashayekhi and he is known as Farhad. Among the works translated by Reza Mashayekhi are the books “Confessions” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “Science and Religion” by Bertrand Russell and “The Republic” by Plato.

We read in a part of the ethics book
Courage and temperance

1. Because virtue has relations with human lusts and behavior. So what arises from our will. It is praised or condemned, if what is done without the will of the chosen is forgiven and even a tool of pity, it may be necessary. Because our discussion is about piety; Let’s see what is voluntary and what is involuntary.

2. On the other hand, this is also the view of the legislators, who sought to regulate rewards or punishments. useful.

3. It seems. It is an involuntary act committed out of compulsion, or due to ignorance. The obligatory action is that the origin is outside our scope. So that the agent of the verb, the other party’s foot, does not interfere in it in any way. Like, a strong wind blows or those who have our life at their disposal and power. Move us.

4. For all the actions we do for fear of worse consequences or in the air of purpose and refuge, it is important to know whether they were intentional or not. For example, consider the situation of an oppressor who controls the lives of our belongings and our children, and forces us to act improperly and makes it a condition that doing so will save our loved ones and, if violated, will lead to their death.

5. This situation is not unlike a ship caught in a storm at sea. Most of the time, no one is indifferent to the ship. Rather, he willingly surrenders to save himself and others (at any cost). Like those who have a healthy spirit.

Related books

1- Introducing the book  on YouTube

2- Introducing the book  in Aparat

Additional information



There are no reviews yet.

Show only reviews in English (0)

Be the first to review “Ethics”

Your email address will not be published.