Introducing the book of Plato’s works (three volumes)
Plato’s Collection is a three-volume work that includes Plato’s works. The translator of this work is Dr. Sharafuddin Khorasani.
Plato (Ancient Greek: Πλάτων, pronounced: / latplaton / ˈ) (428/427 BC to 347/348 BC). He is one of the great philosophers of Greece and Athens in the classical Greek era.
According to Diogenes Laertius, his real name was Aristotle and he was nicknamed Plato because of his stout physique. He is also considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of history. Along with his teacher Socrates and his disciple Aristotle, he is one of the three great philosophers of ancient Greece. The king philosopher and theory are like the two main ideas in his works.
Plato’s life and lineage
Plato was born in Athens in 427 BC into a powerful political and aristocratic family. The real name of this philosopher is not Plato, but his real name was Aristotle. Plato has a broad meaning in Greek. It is not clear exactly why he was given this title and given so many interpretations.
Some have suggested that he became known as Plato because of his broad-shouldered, broad-shouldered appearance and his tall stature, derived from the Greek adjective “wide”. Others have written that he had a large forehead.
Some said that the main purpose of calling Aristotle Plato was not because of his large appearance, but because of his broad-mindedness and high thought.
Plato came from a large and noble family. His lineage goes back to Codrus, the last king of Athens, and after him the Athenian government became a republic.
From his mother’s point of view, he was honorable and respected, and his mother’s lineage goes to another person who is a well-known people, and he is Solon, who was not a king but had the position of wisdom. Solon was one of the seven wise men among the ancient Greeks, about whom many stories have been told.
Plato was very gifted as a child, and his father taught him music, philosophy, gymnastics, and literature. Pythagoras influenced him. He also became a student of Socrates at the age of twenty to complete his education. This fellowship and apprenticeship lasted for eight years, although there are doubts about this.
In 399 BC, Plato witnessed the voluntary execution of his teacher Socrates by an Athenian court, and wrote that Socrates rejected the offer to flee Athens. After the execution of Socrates, Plato left Athens for Megara (city).
He traveled for several years in cities in Greece and abroad, such as Megara, and after a trip to Sicily in 387, returned to Athens at the age of forty and founded a philosophical school known as the Academy.
His education there was delayed by two trips to Sicily in 366 and 361. Plato died in 347 and left the leadership of his academy to Sposipus, who was also his niece and student.
In 387 BC, Plato established his “School of Science, Philosophy and Literature” called the “Academy” in consecration of the academy. The Academy can rightly be considered the first European university because its studies and research were not limited to pure philosophy but to a wide range of sciences including astronomy, mathematics, natural sciences and music. Which have practical applications. Aristotle was an academy student for 20 years and then a professor there.
A manuscript from the third century AD contains excerpts from Plato’s Republic
Plato’s work is in the form of dialogue, and according to Taylor, we have a complete collection of Plato’s books; It is assumed that we have all of his conversations, although there is no record of his teaching at the academy.
The most important surviving book by Plato is The Republic. This book has 10 dialogues. In all the works of Socrates’ conversations with various people, it is seen accurately and by mentioning names. The Treatise of the Republic is a discussion of justice, death, imitation, tyranny, etc., which usually revolves around Socrates. This treatise is the result of Socrates’ conversations with Glaucus (Plato’s brother), Simias, Hippocrates, and several others.
Another work of Plato is a banquet or party or symposium which is a treatise on love. This treatise has a narrative mode that takes place at a party in Athens where Socrates is also present. In one part of the book, we see the dialogue of the characters in the story
Other works by Plato include Lachs on Courage, which is, of course, ineffective; Eun is also opposed to the poets and poetesses of the period, Kratols, on the theory of language, and Phaedrus, which implies the nature of love; named. It is probable that Phaedrus was written between Plato and the First and Second Visits to Sicily. It is worth noting;
Apart from the mentioned works, Plato also has dozens of other works. He proposed a theory called parable theory, in which he mentioned that man has one like himself in the other world. In this theory, man, animals, and every other being have a perfect example (like a mold), from which the creatures on earth are formed.
The following is a list of some of Plato’s books whose authenticity is limited or certain today; It is in a historical order that can be attributed to them, and of course this is a conjectural, hypothetical and approximate order.
Name of books
Original name Imitation name
Beautiful first hippies
Alcibiades the first human truth
Hippias II lies
Gorgias is a fan of rhetoric
Party banquet, love
Otozimus is a controversial man
Kratols Properties Names
Bermanides forms like
Tai Titus Science
The political man of the kingdom
Wise Iponomis, Night Talk
Plato’s view of art
Diogenes Laertius says that Plato first studied painting and recited poetry, but after becoming acquainted with Socrates, he abandoned his poems and abandoned emotion in favor of reason; Although one can easily see a combination of philosophy and poetry in works by Plato, such as The Banquet, the truth is that no philosopher in history like Plato has rejected poetry and art in such a way that he even considers poetry nonsense and the poet unaware of himself.
The tenth book of the Republican treatise also discusses the incompatibility of philosophy and poetry from the very beginning. From Plato’s point of view, philosophy deals with sensory and mental data, as well as with empirical sense and reasoning, reasoning, and reason. According to Plato, poetry and art are related to the world of imagination, feelings and emotions.
According to Plato, all arts are imitations; For example, when a person makes a statue of a person, in fact, he has created the image of a person who also turned away from the world, and therefore he knows the approach of the person who turned upside down the statue, and anyone who is looking for the truth;
Inevitably despised art. Also in another view of Plato the idea of beauty as experienced in love; It can reach the realm of transcendent thought, but art can only flatter;
And deceives the senses and leads the mind to be nourished by illusions. Who does not want to make a mistake when judging a poem or a piece of music, first of all, he must know what that piece wants to embody and secondly, he must know that thing.
Collection of works by Plato
Plato’s view of democracy
Democracy is made up of the Greek words Demos (people) and Kratos (government). Plato considered democracy to be the rule of ignorant people and believed that in a democracy, people without moderation and justice and with lust, gather and become experts.
He also believed that the execution of Socrates was the result of a democratic government; Plato’s criticism was that when you are sick; You do not gather people to diagnose your disease, but go to the doctor; Therefore, why should we pay attention to the opinion of the majority when ruling?
Thus it can be deduced from Plato’s theory that he believed that government should be left in the hands of those in power, not the majority.
“The greatest principle is that no one, male or female, should be without a leader, or that one should not be tempted to do something on one’s own initiative, whether out of motivation and zeal, or out of humor and playfulness.
Rather, in war and peace, he is obliged to keep an eye on his leader and follow him faithfully, and to be under his leadership even in the smallest matters, for example, he should only get up, or laugh, or wash, or eat, as he has been told. To do so. In a word, he must train his soul in such a way that he never dreams of acting independently and is incapable of doing so.
2- Introducing the book in Aparat