In the book On the Heavens, you will be introduced to concepts that are already being discussed in a more modern format. It seems that the same views and issues have remained from ancient times until now, and even with the sudden development of science in the twentieth century, it has posed more questions to philosophers (physicists).
Introducing the book On the Heavens
“Natural science talks more or less about objects and their quantities and properties and their motions, as well as about the origins of this type of substance.”
This is the first sentence of Aristotle on the world of nature and pure Hellenic philosophy (ancient Greece) in a book called On the Heavens, of course, translated into Persian. Aristotle wrote down what he knew and understood until that time from the point of view of himself and others as a philosophy that he knew and understood as now and not in the Middle Ages and even shortly before.
Of course, I would like to point out that social philosophy and the humanities are also completely influenced by statistics and probabilities in the form of various theories such as uncertainty, game theory, and biology and, most importantly, physics.
Reading past sources is very valuable because you have to refer to the writings of professors to understand the concepts. And Aristotle is already seeking answers to his own questions in accelerators and physics, astronomy, and biology laboratories. Questions that he himself was certainly not sure of with the certainty with which he wrote them, and this is the essence of the dynamic human mind, otherwise dozens or hundreds of new questions would not have been posed with each question.
This treatise or Matikan (in Middle Persian) is divided into four books and in each of them you will get acquainted with the views of that time. Almost because there are very thick untranslated books in languages other than Persian about the ancient Persians and various documents that we do not even have in the form of a book.
Book One: The Supermoon
It is a basic discussion of the fundamental definitions of nature. Incorruptibility and incorruptibility, the uniqueness of the sky, the infinite body and so on.
Book II: The Supermoon World, Sequel
Summary of the previous content, the sphere of the sky, the movement of the sky, the stars, the latter of which has several main sections, and finally two sections about the earth.
Book Three: The World Under the Moon
Which, as it turns out, was about the basic elements and particles from the point of view of the ancient Greeks (if we accept that these thoughts and results were only the intellectual result of the Hellenes).
Book 4: The Universe of the Moon, Throne
The same famous four elements that you have read about in every simple book. And of course the weight and lightness, which is practically an introduction to the definition of volume and density.
To illustrate the importance of this work (if I am successful, of course): There are some very important concepts in science that later became one of the most fundamental concepts in science called thermodynamics.
It is impossible for there to be objects that have infinite weight or infinite lightness! A completely philosophical sentence away from scientific knowledge with what were later called exact sciences! But we see how important this concept is still to physics. Why! Because physics means measurement! What to measure? Something that can be measured! (Here we have nothing to do with metaphysics, which has its own discussion).
He refers to the dynamics of the universe and with the reasons he has shown that the place of immobility is uniform, and since apparently the dynamics of the static place is seen in most parts of the universe (in his view), then everything is not heavy or light and a mixture. There are some of these.
The existence of other worlds is subject to homosexuality with the four fundamental elements of nature, otherwise it does not exist.
The beginning of Aristotle’s first book refers to another person named “Empedox” who believed in the vortex movement in the universe while he was not very interested in it.
Throughout this book, there are things that you will not see much difference if you are familiar with the British cosmologist Fred Hoyle. Both have made a big mistake in arguing for their own idea! Complicate and falter! But both of them did valuable work and ideas anyway. Always remember this Max Planck sentence when we know we went somewhere wrong, we should not be disappointed and sad at all because we made a great discovery! We realized that this method or idea is wrong and we will safely move on to other ideas!
Because the book also has an outline of philosophy, you have to go a little deeper.
In Pythagorean critique, Aristotle wrote the next article, which I think the translator made a mistake: he considered the front and the back to be a mirror image (after reading, you will notice the problem I mentioned).
He continues with the idea of a stable world and raises important ideas.
In the third section or article, he encounters a contradiction and makes the same mistake! He considers the world metaphysical, refers again to its physicality, and is caught between the materiality or the immateriality of the world.
He knows the spherical symmetry best and knows the layers with the border between your spheres. You must have heard the concept of the seven heavens many times, which were rooted in the philosophical thoughts of philosophers.
The stars are at a constant distance from each other.
It has a strange reference to the same concept that we consider homogeneity and isotropy in modern cosmology as two of the three principles. And presents the origin in a place, not when it knows the absolute, in a way that proposes the theory of the Big Bang. Of course, do not be surprised if Aristotelian science likes to think and sometimes we think in science as we want and not as it may exist. The 21st century is slowly moving away from this problem.
Transitional motion is the source of heat.
In the last article of the second book, he introduces the idea of his central land.
He considers order as the main foundation of nature’s movements. Disorder leads to infinity and does not exist in infinite nature. This concept is extremely beautiful! I will not explain to read the book. In general, Aristotle confronts us with a few more words: lightness, heaviness, infinity, and infinity.
And another brilliant idea that physicists today believe in: Anything that does not have the property of light weight is mathematical, and such a thing does not exist externally.
He considers big as a symbol of cold and small as a symbol of heat !! Because heat passes through small objects and cold does not!
In his own language he proposes the law of Archimedes.
In order not to prolong this article, I refer you to the book itself to read in order to pursue several goals: Get to know more about science, especially astronomy in the past. Go deep into the concepts and know what science has been like from the beginning and with what perspective it has come here. Of course, this book is only Aristotle’s book and not the history of science.
It is one of the few books that provides the reader with the original text. Because it’s written by Aristotle. His translation is prepared from the French translation. Not a bad translation at all. Sometimes it seems that the text is heavy or complicated, with two objections, including Aristotle himself and the translator, who sometimes have a contradiction in translating Aristotle. But I think he has done a good job of translating the book. Anyway, we pay attention to the text of the book, which was written with ancient literature! It is not possible to translate it in a way that is equivalent to Persian at that time because we do not know Middle Persian!
Introduction to Aristotle, the first human teacher
Aristotle is undoubtedly one of the most well-known figures in the history of ancient Greece
Aristotle, born in 384 BC in a small town called Stagira in northern Greece, is without a doubt one of the most well-known figures in ancient Greek history. As you probably know, he was one of the beloved disciples of the great Greek philosopher Plato. Aristotle, however, unlike Plato and Socrates, tended to use fact-based and science-based arguments in his research on nature;
This tendency was commonly ignored by philosophers before him because they preferred their own philosophical ideas.
It was because of Aristotle’s astonishing interest in nature, logic, and reason that the influential philosopher made vital contributions to these fields, including mathematics, metaphysics, physics, biology, ethics, politics, and Medicine in today’s world is resonant. He really deserves to be called the “first teacher.”
2- Introducing the book On the Heavens in Aparat