Timur Lang by Harold Lamb (1892-1962) is a historian and author. This book is about “Timur Lang”, one of the influential figures in the history of Iran and the Asian continent. An excerpt from the book’s preface reads:
“Five hundred and fifty years ago, a man tried to establish himself as the ruler of the world. Every action he took was successful. We call him Timur Lang. In the beginning he did not matter much – he only ruled over a piece of land and a herd of Central Asians. Timur was not the son of a king like Alexander the Great and, like Genghis, did not inherit the tribe from his father. Alexander and Genghis were both with them when they set out to conquer, the Macedonians with Alexander and the Mongols with Genghis, but Timur Lang gathered some around him. Timur defeated the armies of half the world one day after another. “He smashed cities and …..”
In an excerpt from this book we read:
As soon as the war ended, Timur sent for Aq Bugha and asked him to come. He was given silver money, silk crochet cloths and skilled maids, and a few horses and camels.
Aq Bogha, who was returning from Timur’s service with all those gifts, did not know how to stand up and was intoxicated by the fact that he threw his prizes. And today all this is following me.
Timur also promoted Aq Boga to the rank of commander of the later part of Sultan Mahmud’s regiment. Aq Bogha spent the rest of his life in glory.
From that day on, Aq Boga never turned his back on the place where Timur was. While sleeping, he stretched his legs towards Amir’s tent.
At the time of his death, he commanded that he be buried so that his feet were towards the place of his Lord (Timur). When Timur was pursuing Al-Muzaffar, he was told that Shah Mansour had fled.
Timur Gurkan, known as Timur Lang, was the first Gurkan king (Timurid) and the founder of this imperial dynasty that ruled most of Central and Western Asia. Timur means iron in Jaghtai language and he is referred to as “Amir Timur”, “Timur Lang”, “Timur Gurkan” and “Sahebqaran”.
Timur, the son of Tragai, was one of the owners of the city of Kash in Turkestan. He was born on the 25th of Sha’ban 736 AH (714 AH) in Shahr-e Kesh. His tribe was from the “Berlas” branch of Turkestan, Timur claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan. According to the historian Ibn Arabshah at the time, Timur was wounded and crippled during the war. According to other narrations, in 764 AH (741 AH), with the help of “Amir Sistan”, he rushed to his aid and was wounded in battle with his opponents, but his leg always faltered after the wound healed.
Timur’s fame began with the conquest of Khorazm in 781 AH (758 AH). Then he turned to the Caspian Sea and killed the inhabitants of some of its cities.
In 795 AH, after the extinction of the Muzaffarids, he noticed Asia Minor. In 800 (776 AH) he conquered India and conquered Delhi. He also fought wars with the Ottomans and in 804 (780 AH) Bayazid captured the Ottomans. Timur returned to his capital Samarkand in 807 (783 AH), decided to conquer China, but did not give it a deadline, and died in 807 (783 AH) at the age of 69 in Kazakhstan. After Timur’s death, his children did not follow his will to be replaced by Pir Mohammad Jahangir, and a dispute arose between the children and the grandchildren. These differences reduced the power of the Timurids day by day and paved the way for their decline. Eventually, the Timurid rule was overthrown by the Sheibanids.
Excerpts from the text of Timur Lang’s book:
“These people cried at the feasts with the cup of wine, and at the battles they laughed with their swords. Few of them had scar wounds from stress, and very few of them died in bed. They usually went back and forth with light weapons, wearing steel ring armor and a striped silk shirt or torso underneath, their warlike temperament and militant instinct not far from them. They loved to hunt, and as soon as they finished their work, they had fun hunting, and with the trained ears, they separated from the herd and herd and set out to hunt.
These pots were sold to them by mountain people. The one who had a keeper was highly respected, and the one who had an eagle and could hunt a male deer was respected by himself and his family. Some of them kept tigers, blindfolded them, and then released them into the slave hunting grounds to hunt deer. They carried long, heavy bows, shot arrows at the two arrows, followed the leopard on foot, and were skilled in both.
There are historical stories related to Timur’s arrival in Shiraz and his meeting with Hafez, one of which is that he summoned that famous poet and the poet came to Amir in a dervish cloak.
Amir Teymour said violently to Hafez: “I heard you wrote this poem. If that Shirazi Turk wins, I will give our hearts to his Hindu mole, Samarkand, and Hafez said to Bukhara:” Yes, this poem is from me. ” Timur shouted at him that I had captured Samarkand by the sword and had fought for years to capture that city, and now I was taking a gift for Samarkand from every city. How do you sell this city as a Shirazi Turk? The poet smiled after a moment of reflection and said: “O Amir, I have fallen into such a day as you can see due to the same extravagance.” The present and ready answer pleased the Timurid poet and a reward was given to Hafez.
The people of Isfahan are very fit. Their skin is white to reddish. They are extremely kind and hospitable and compete with each other at parties. They invite you to bread and cheese, but under the silk covers the dishes are full of sweets and very tasty and expensive food.
We do not know now how to understand the horror of that day when the Mongols were approaching. It is said that in a city a Mongol man prepared twenty captives to kill, then he remembered that he had not brought his sword, so he ordered the captives to stay there so that he could go and bring his sword. All but one of the captives remained in place. And this narration is quoted from the same narrator.
On one of those days, he came to Samarkand market and saw it as small and unsuitable for increasing transactions, so he ordered the construction of a street for commercial transactions from Rigistan to the river. Timur said the operation should be completed in twenty days. He left this task to the aristocracy and said that if it was not completed within twenty days, their heads would be blown away. Naturally, two aristocrats were appointed to oversee.
Soldiers were destroying houses along the way. The protest did not help. Homeowners would take what they could from their clothes and furniture before the roof collapsed and flee. Workers were forced out of the city and confiscated loads of stone and lime. The rubbish was thrown out by chariot. Eventually the street floor was flat, paved and paved. The workers worked two shifts, one during the day and the other with torches in the evening. Historians say that the scene of the night owls and their commotion was such that it was thought that they had made the court work.
Timur’s campaigns changed the political situation and affected the fate of Europe. Timur reopened the continent’s trade routes, which had been closed for a hundred years, and connected Asia and Europe in terms of trade. کردن. Timur’s death caused Asian trade to fail miserably, and so Vaskodagama and Christopher Columbus sought to find a new way to Asia by sea.
The Ghezel camp was defeated and the Russians were able to liberate and become independent. The Muzaffar dynasty became extinct in Iran, and two centuries later it became a famous empire under the protection of Shah Abbas of Iran. Although the Ottoman Turks were defeated and dispersed, the situation in Europe was so chaotic that they could not unite and liberate themselves, so the Ottoman Turks regained their strength and in 1453 they opened Constantinople.
An influential story is told about one of the Crusaders’ fences and the Muslim oil spill, in which the Crusaders fired wooden catapults at the Christian towers in front of the wall of the Muslim fence. The bullets exploded in the tower, spilling liquid that did not cause any damage. The Christians laughed at the foolishness of the besieged Muslims, who soaked the Christian towers in that liquid to no avail, but as soon as the towers were soaked in the liquid, the Muslims threw burning torches into the towers, and the people in the towers set fire to the towers themselves.
The Tatars were a tribe or nation living in neighboring China, and the Chinese called them Tatars. The name was applied to the tribes, as the Chinese still call them Tatar, and the name became so widespread that Europeans called all nomadic people Tatars.
The Europeans learned the word Tatar from the Russians and considered China to be the same as Khata or Khata.
Before Timur, the domes of Iran were more conical in shape and did not look like pomegranates. In the buildings built in the early days of Timur, the shape of the dome was conical, but the tomb of Bibi Khanum and the tomb of Timur, the grave of Amir, had a pomegranate-like dome. It became commonplace, and the Russians imitated it and changed it.
Crasswell has written a book about the changes in the shape of the dome in Iran, in which he says that this type of dome was adapted by Timur from the Umayyads of Damascus, and when Timur invaded India, not even such a dome was seen in that country. The city burned completely. The dome of Damascus was very large and from the desert it looked like a big tower. Timur spent a whole month watching this dome from the camp outside the city of Damascus.
The city of Karshi or Qarshi is one of the famous cities of Khorasan in a few miles southwest of Kesh and from that city to Samarkand is three days away because in Mongolian Qarsh or Karshi means palace and one of the Mongol kings had built a magnificent palace in this city. That city was called Qarsh or his work. But the correct Persian name of this city is Nakhshab and the Arabs call it Nasaf.
It seems that there has never been a Turkish nation and a Turkish empire. The Ottomans were not Turks either, but their origin is from the Turkmen nomadic tribes. They did not emerge from the ruling tribes. They conquered Europe and communicated with the Europeans and also became close and related to the people of the East. Their language consists mostly of Arabic and Persian words. The Ottomans were never Turks.
Timur suffered for sixty-two days with his beloved wife in a dirty place, especially when the weather was hot, and as a result, Timur swore that he would not keep anyone innocent or guilty in prison.
Timur came around the city with his troops. Then he threw them around. These riders planted sycamore trees along the city, and each set up a mass of dust with all their might. The Mongols in the city thought that many troops were coming to attack the city and evacuated the city out of fear, thus capturing the green city without siege and bloodshed.
After the conquest of India, Timur thought of a comprehensive building. Maybe 200,000 people died in the winter of that war, but Timur did not care and thought of a comprehensive end. The conquering generals of India were in charge of overseeing the construction of the minarets and comprehensive columns. One hundred and eighty stone pillars were erected in the comprehensive nave. The marble roof was polished and the doors were made of brass. Gold, iron and silver were used for the pulpit and the place of the sermon and were written in beautiful lines in every corner of the Quranic verses. In short, in less than three months, the muezzins called the call to prayer from the top of the minarets and the orators prayed from the pulpit of the emperor. Timur never formally calls himself emperor.
At the same time that Damascus was immersed in fire and blood, the shape of one of the city’s domes caught Timur’s attention and he ordered that a map be prepared. This dome, which was on the tomb, could be seen well from the desert and was in the form of a sharp, wide, round object that the Tatars were familiar with.
The dome was rising from the base and rising suddenly. In fact, the dome was in the shape of a pomegranate. Apparently, this dome did not resemble any of the previous architectural works, and its prominence and grandeur fascinated the Tatar conqueror. This wide round dome in Damascus, which was burned and destroyed in the fire, became an example of the domes of Timur’s mansions and his descendants. A century later, it was moved to India, where the Taj Mahal and the Mongol palaces were built accordingly. The domes of all Russian churches are like that.
Fire fighting has been common since the Achaemenid period, and during the history of the Iran-Greece war, and especially during the siege of Athens, Homer made it clear that the Iranians fired arrows and jars full of incendiary materials at the hands of the Greek army. Warfare in those days meant oil-contaminated arrows and jars full of combustible materials that were thrown at the enemy after ignition, and because the Iranians sooner than other countries discovered and used oil as eternal fire, they set fire to war. It also spread before everywhere in Iran.
Timur’s death caused the warriors and the helmets of Turan (northern part) to be separated from the civilized people of the turban over Iran (southern part) in terms of shape and appearance. But the unity of Islam never materialized. With the death of Timur, the dream of a general Muslim caliphate was shattered. The leaders of Islam wanted to restore their ancient greatness with that Tatar conqueror, but later realized that the Timurid wars made Islam more disturbing and shook its foundations.
Timur never went to war with the religious leaders, and in the end it turned out that he did not pay attention to their professions. The new empire of Iran had a different religion and was constantly in conflict. The descendants of Timur, who ruled in India, were nominally Muslim like him, but tolerated other religions as well. Came and most likely no human force can make a political unit of Muslims of different nations. “No one came to power after Timur to conquer the world.”
2- Introducing the book in Aparat