Su va shun


Title: Su va shun

Author: Simin Daneshvar

Publisher: Kharazmi

Subject: Persian story

Age category: Adult

Cover: Paperback

Number of pages: 307 p

Language: Farsi



Su va shun is the first novel of Simin, May 28, 1300 – March 9, 2012, an Iranian author, which was published in 1348.

The story of Su va shun takes place in Shiraz in the last years of World War II and depicts the social atmosphere of the years 1320 to 1325.

According to some critics, some historical events of the 1330s, such as the coup d’état of 28 August, were also reflected in the novel; As one of the central characters of the story is killed on the 29th of Mordad.

The reason for naming this book is the similarity of the end of one of the characters in the story with the fate of Siavash, the hero of the myths of ancient Iran. Suvushun or Siavoshan is derived from the title of mourning ceremony for Siavash.
This book was first published in July 1969 and reached its nineteenth edition by 2014. This book is one of the most popular Persian novels in Iran and it is estimated that more than five hundred thousand copies of it have been sold by 2016.

Su va shun has also been translated into many languages, including English, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese. The play Suvshun, based on this novel, was staged in Tehran in 2000 and 2001.

Suoshun’s story begins with simple, fluent language, without lows and highs, and the author avoids any embellishment or gilding of words.

In the first pages of the book, the audience realizes the main theme of the novel and becomes aware of what is to be encountered later, which is an example of what in Persian literature is called the literary array of astrology.
In some parts, the novel, which is narrated from an external perspective in a way that is omniscient to the golden mind, the central female character of the story, deviates from the main path in order to complete the reader’s information about the main subject of the story.

In these episodes, the author has devised a measure to prevent the reader’s boredom, and according to contemporary writer and critic Houshang Golshiri, he has been somewhat successful in this regard. Another feature of Suvshun is the use of Shirazi words and expressions.

Many of Suwon’s main and sub-characters are inspired by real characters and have evolved into different personalities.

Zari’s character is similar to Simin Daneshvar and Yusuf’s character is similar to Jalal Al-Ahmad. Other characters such as Dr. Abdullah Khan, Ms. Masihadham, McMahon, Baby Hamdam and Queen Sohrab are also inspired by real characters.
Suoshun has both a realistic and a symbolic aspect and, in fact, has a two-tier structure; One is the narrative or fictional layer and the other is the symbolic or allegorical layer.

Its narrative layer is an interesting story in the social environment of Iran in which the manifestations of Iranian culture and civilization and poetic expression are used. In the bottom layer, some characters and objects are given a cryptic function.

Of course, there are clues to discover these allegories, and the audience can find its connection with religious or national heroes such as Hussein Bey Ali, Siavash and Yahya.

Throughout the story, Daneshvar points to the role of culture and cultural differences between the British and the Iranians, and indirectly says that everyone eventually returns to their origins.

Su va shun praises steadfastness against the occupier and martyrdom in this way to a higher degree than religion, love, personal interests and family.
Although this path fails by killing the central character of the story, the author seeks to convey the notion that future generations or generations will succeed in continuing the path of the oppressors and intellectuals.

The author refers to anti-colonial and anti-Western thoughts and feelings, the effect and scope of which can be seen in the following decades in the formation of the Islamic Revolution in 2357.

Due to her feminine experience, Daneshvar has been successful in creating female characters. This novel paints a vision of the future of women and the role they play in social change;

As the central character of the woman, although she accepts patriarchal behaviors throughout the story, she eventually changes from a conservative character to a social activist.

Literary background
The constitutional years were a period of fascination with the Western intellectual current, and this trend continued until the 1320s, with the spread of cosmopolitan tendencies.

But from 1340, the stage of intellectual self-realization and efforts for cultural uplift and resistance to the pro-Western policies of the government began.

Hassan Mir Abedini considers Iranian literature in the years 1342 to 1357 as “Awakening literature” and “establishing a conscious connection with reality and history.”

Aware of the plight of society, the authors used “protest” as the basis of their work and addressed aspects of history that official and authoritarian interpretations sought to forget.

The flourishing of literature in this period was on the one hand due to social changes and intellectual growth of intellectuals and on the other hand was influenced by the closure of the political and social space by the government.

The story of Suvshun takes place in Shiraz in the last years of World War II; Allied forces have entered Iran and the British army has occupied southern Iran, including Shiraz.
In 23 chapters, the book tells the story of a middle-class family in this period, while daily life becomes more complex due to the presence of the occupiers.

The story takes place in front of the golden eyes of a happy and married woman who tries to protect her family.

At times, she does the opposite of what was expected of a traditional Iranian woman at the time. From an external point of view, it is narrated in a way that is omniscient and limited to Zari’s mind. Even incidents in which Zari was not present have been narrated by him.

The events of the novel are narrated in real time.
The story begins with the wedding ceremony of the daughter of the ruler of Shiraz, in which Zari and Yousef participate.

In addition to the city’s aristocracy, the leaders of the British army that occupied the city are also present.

A British official named Sergeant Zinger tries to persuade Joseph to sell his land to British forces. But Yousef decides to give his surplus to the famine-stricken people of Shiraz.

Yusuf’s brother Khan Kaka, who is seeking a position, tries to persuade him to come to terms with the ruler of Shiraz and the leaders of the British army.
Yusuf’s persistence and stubbornness make Zari very worried about losing the security and peace of his home and family.

Once Yusuf goes to the village to rebel against his property, Zari worries, has nightmares at night, and his dreams become more disturbed as time goes on.

Yusuf is shot dead by an unknown person and his body is brought home. Zari is upset and unhappy.

Here the story takes on a mythical dimension and imagines Zari in Yusuf’s sleep and wakefulness as Siavash. This distress is so great that sometimes those around him think he is crazy.

But in the end, he removes fear and panic and leaves the shadow of doubt. Although Yusuf is killed in the struggle between reality and idealism, his death creates change and awakening in others, especially Zari.
Finally, the story is about Joseph’s funeral, which, according to his friends and supporters, should turn into political and religious demonstrations. But government officials are prevented and the ceremony is violent.

Inevitably, the body is taken to the cemetery at night in the trunk of Khan Kaka’s car and buried in an unmarked grave without Tawaf or prayers. , Trees will grow in the houses and trees in fame and many trees in your land.

And the wind will carry the message from one tree to another, and the trees will ask the wind: Did you not see the dawn on the way you came?
The story is told from Zari’s point of view and the audience becomes completely familiar with his feelings, fears and aspirations. Zari or Ms. Zahra, the main character of the story, is an educated young woman who is concerned about keeping the family calm.

He has a transformative personality and is transformed by the events that take place and continues his wife’s bold goals. At the beginning of the story, Zari is a normal and traditional wife in the idea of ​​taking care of her husband and children.

In political matters, Zari follows the views of her husband Yusuf, and although she distances herself from patriotic ideas, she sees facts through which she would like to remain secretive. Zari is concerned about the turbulent social situation, but sometimes her family members also They oppress him and make him angry.

However, Zari does not complain about this issue and does not even pay attention. Even under Zari’s character, he oscillates between fear and courage.
The fear that exists in him arises from his love for his wife and children, but in this regard he is accused of being a wife. She becomes her child.

On the other hand, not giving horses prepares the ground for hostility towards them. To calm down, Zari gives the horse and stage a scene where the horse is dead.

But the golden lie cannot even create a temporary peace, and Yusuf tells him, “What is the use of a peace based on deception?” In Chapter Fifteen, Zari behaves differently in a similar situation and refuses to help Ms. Ezzat al-Dawla.

This is the first beginning of resistance in Zari’s behavior. Finally, the murder of her husband takes him out of the dilemma and gives him courage and boldness.
Yusuf, Zari’s husband, has a stable character throughout the story, and even at the beginning of the story, his fate can be examined;

He is an educated and anti-colonial Maliki who refuses to sell his product to foreign troops.

He is a family-friendly man and tries to provide comfort for his wife and children. His controversy with Zari in the course of the story is related to the goals and methods of his political and social struggle.

He knows the root of social corruption and sees the solution in a peaceful and continuous struggle;

Therefore, he does not agree with the method of the Tudeh Party activists. , Considers Joseph to be a single figure whose struggle is not rooted and does not lead to fundamental change;

Rather, it is reminiscent of the character of the nobles who tried to help the oppressed as much as they could and attack the oppressors.
In addition to Zari and her husband Yousef, their son (Khosrow) and their twin daughters (Mina and Marjan) and Aunt Khanum are also other members of this family. has brought. د

He has no grievances and affiliations with Zari and openly opposes his other brother, Abu al-Qasim Khan, who cooperates with the British. To escape the current situation, he decides to go to Karbala and be nearby. Ezzat al-Dawla is a wealthy woman who has a close relationship with the ruling family.

He is hostile to Zari because he refused his son’s request. But on the other hand, Ezzat al-Dawla herself is oppressed by her husband;

Her husband betrays her and has intercourse with other women in front of her, and she is forced to entertain them in her own home.
Ferdows is the house of Ezzat al-Dawla, who was raped by her husband or son and forced into marriage with Kal Abbas, the servant of that house.

His mother, Grandmother Ferdows, also works in the same house and cooperates with Ezzat al-Dawla in smuggling. Soodabeh is a dancer and the mistress of Yusuf’s father and aunt, who displaces their mother and disgraces their father, but never marries him. To prepare

I remember my friend, who was the glory of my life and I sat in mourning for him.

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