One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is a 1962 novel by American author Ken Casey. The novel takes place in a psychiatric hospital in the US state of Oregon and contains a look at the power structures in organizations. The novel also critiques the school of psychology-behaviorism and praises human principles.
The author had spent some time as an employee of a mental hospital in Menlo Park, California, and sympathized with the mentally ill. The novel first became a play in 1963, but a much more popular take is the 1975 film Crazy Jumped from the Cage, directed by Milos Forman and starring Jack Nicholson. The film won five Academy Awards.
Time Magazine has selected this novel as one of the top 100 English language novels between 1923 and 2005.
The original name of the novel is One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.
The Flight Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is a psychological novel by Ken Casey that is considered one of the most influential novels of our time. This novel, which with a complete artistry, presented a new definition of sanity and madness, deals with the unforgettable story of a mental asylum and its inhabitants.
A controversial and fun-loving man named Randall Patrick McMurphy has just arrived at the nursing home and can not cope with the orders of a grumpy and authoritarian nurse named Mrs. Ratchet. The narrator is an Indian and a mixed race patient who witnesses McMurphy’s heroic efforts to confront those who have imprisoned all the patients in this sanatorium.
The Cuckoo’s Nest in English is a metaphor for a psychiatric hospital. This name is also part of a children’s poem:
Wire, briar, limber-lock
Three geese in a flock
One flew east, one flew west
And one flew over the cuckoo’s nest.
In the book Indian Personality, he remembers this song from his childhood; And also the name: two people died for various reasons, and the other was released.
However, McMurphy does not give up and takes various measures to make the mentally ill happy and confident. Once McMurphy claims that whenever he wants he can knock the heavy table (steel-concrete control panel) of the hydrotherapy machine on the window of the sanatorium and go to the city, other patients bet that he can not shake the table, McMurphy accepts the bet He tries to shake the table, but fails, but returns and tells the other patients, “At least I tried.”
This encourages other patients not to give in to problems before trying and to do their best in the face of problems. McMurphy cleverly discovers the story’s Chef Bramdon’s secret and knows that he has turned himself into a dumb and deaf person, and that a secret friendship has been formed between McMurphy and the narrator.
One of the turning points in the story is where McMurphy realizes that, unlike a typical prison sentence of up to six months, he can be held indefinitely in hospital, and that his discharge from a mental hospital is possible only with the will of Nurse Rached.
From now on, McMurphy will adopt a conservative approach. Meanwhile, a patient named Charles Cheswick, a McMurphy’s supporter, challenges Rachd’s nurse in hopes of McMurphy’s help, but sees no support from the conservative McMurphy and desperately commits suicide in the hospital pool. After this incident, McMurphy decides to abandon conservatism and take the risk of staying in the hospital.
McMurphy’s other activities include trying to watch baseball matches on the sanatorium TV or planning a fishing trip. On this trip, a friend of McMurphy, a prostitute girl named “Candy”, helps him take patients from the hospital to the port and travels with the patients on this trip.
The voyage is successful, and one of the patients, George Sorensen, a skilled fisherman and captain, helps patients gain the respect of the port people by successfully fishing. In this story, a prisoner named “Billy Bibit”, a shy man with stuttering and inexperienced women, tells McMurphy that he likes “Kennedy”.
After that, McMurphy plans “Kennedy” to return to the orphanage and even ignores the escape somewhere to run the program. On the promised day, Kennedy comes to the sanatorium with one of his daughter’s friends. McMurphy bribes the orphanage overnight, brings the women into the orphanage, and holds a big party at the orphanage.
Billy Baby’s cohabitation with Kennedy is arranged and Billy loses his virginity. The next morning, the “Grand Nurse” finds out about the night before, including interrogating Billy Baby, “Billy” speaks without stuttering for the first time, but the “Grand Nurse” ignores the improvement and threatens He says he will tell “Bailey’s mother” the night before. Billy, who counts on his mother a lot, commits suicide.
The nurse blames McMurphy for John Bailey, who loses control of McMurphy, attacks the nurse, rips open her uniform, and tries to strangle her. The grand nurse returns to the nursing home after a while, but the damage to her larynx has weakened her speech. Rachd nurse is no longer taken seriously by patients and has to compromise with patients who have been bullied. Many patients who remained in the ward voluntarily leave and return to the community.
In response to McMurphy’s attack, he was operated on by a grand nurse for lobotomy (making two holes in the forehead to remove parts of the brain) and turned into an insensitive, powerless human with plant life. “Chief Bramdon” does not tolerate this state of life for McMurphy, and because he does not want McMurphy’s lifeless body to become a symbol of the failure of the nurse’s resistance, he kills her and breaks the cage by throwing a heavy hydrotherapy table on the sanatorium window. It flies to freedom.
This novel has been translated by Saeed Bastani (1976) and published in Iran. In 1989, Amir Ismaili translated a summary of this book entitled “Crazy jumped from a cage”.
In popular culture, Nurse Rached has become a manifestation of cold bureaucracy with hidden violence and a humanitarian appearance. In 2003, Nurse Rachd was selected by the American Film Institute as the fifth most hated character in the history of cinema.
Kenneth Elton “Ken” Kesey in English: Kenneth Elton “Ken” Kesey; Born September 17, 1935 – Died November 10, 2001 was an American novelist.
2- Introducing the book in Aparat