No Exit, also translated as “Closed” and “Hell”, is the most famous play by Jean-Paul Sartre. The characters of the play are two women and a man who have died with different deaths and are now gathered together. Their work is to show the consciences of human beings deprived of their liberty.
Solitude is a one-act play, with four characters, three of whom are the main characters, and the fourth person is a man who is called a waiter. The three main characters in this play are like the three sides of a triangle that also affect each other:
Two women (Stell and Ince) and two men (one named Garson and the other character called the Waiter) is a scene in a room decorated in the style of the Second French Empire, where Stell, Ince and Garson die after each other in hell. Find.
In this play, Sartre has masterfully prepared an opportunity for the characters to go through their past in fear of the fate that awaits them. Solitude may not be Sartre’s best play, but in some ways it is his most important play. In particular, it is a key work that, along with nausea early in his career, reflects his philosophical views and, in particular, existentialism, which he has since represented as a leading figure.
Interestingly, the play The Dormitory was staged without any problems during Nazi-occupied France, while Sartre symbolically taunts France and French politicians who surrendered to the Germans.
Characters who, according to their deeds, as well as the mentality they have in mind of how hell and its torments are in mind, are waiting for physical torture with eternal condemnation. The three characters have nothing in common. The waiter is a cowardly man who escaped the war, betrayed to save his life, but was eventually arrested and killed. Refers. Ince is a gay woman, a woman who loved him so frustrated that she killed Ince and then committed suicide, but Stell is a woman who bears the burden of the death of her illegitimate child.
Jean Paul Sartre has a narrative about solitude that sums it up: I liked three and wanted to write a play in which all three would play a role, and I turned to this technique so that it would not seem less important than the others. That all three of them be present on stage throughout the show.
Because the famous saying “Hell means others” is included in this work, Sartre said to dispel this: They thought that I wanted to say that our relationships with others are always poisonous, and that these relationships are always hell, while I want to say that if a relationship with another If it is complicated and polluted, then it can only be hell. The rationale for this statement is that others are more important than ourselves in knowing ourselves. When we think of ourselves, we judge ourselves by the means that others have given us. Whatever I say about myself, it always leads to the judgment of others.
In a part of the book No Exit, you will read:
Ah! forget. What a childish word! I feel your presence to the core of my bones. Your silence fills my ears. You can nail your mouth, you can cut your tongue, but can you prevent your existence? Can you stop thinking? I hear its ticking sound, like a clock, and I know you hear my mind.
No matter how much you push yourself against the corner of your couch, you are everywhere, the sounds come to me in a polluted way, because you have heard them on the way. You have even stolen my face from me: you know it and I do not know it.
and she? She? You stole him from me: and if we were alone, do you think he would dare to treat me like this? No, no: Remove these handles from your face, I will not leave you alone, it will be very comfortable. In this case, you will remain there without feeling, immersed in yourself, like a Buddha. I close my eyes, I will feel that he will give you all the noises of his life, even the rustle of his shirt, and he will send you smiles that you will not see … No, not like that! I want to choose my own hell; I want to look at you with all the strength of my eyes and fight while my face is clear.
In an excerpt from the No Exit, we read:
Ines: You are very beautiful. I wanted to have flowers to welcome you.
Stell: Flowers? Yes sir. I really liked the flowers. They wither here: it’s too hot. To! But the principle is not to maintain our good mood. You…
Ince: Yes, last week. And you?
Stell: Me? Yesterday. The ceremony is not over yet. They do whatever they can to make her cry. OK! OK! Another attempt. fixed! Two tears, two tears shining under the black cloth. Olga Jarda 6 is very ugly this morning. He grabs my sister’s arm. He does not cry because of his mascara and I must say that if I were him … he is my best friend.
Ince: Have you suffered much?
Stell: No. I was mostly Meng.
Ince: What was …?
Stell: Essence. [Same as before] Well, it’s over, they’re leaving. Hello! Hello! What a loss. My husband is sick, he stays at home. [To Ines] And you?
Estelle: And you, sir?
Waiter: Twelve bullets in the body.
Stell: Oh! Dear Mr., I wish you were just kind and did not use these disgusting words. These … these are annoying. And finally, what do they want to say? Maybe we have never been so alive. If it is absolutely necessary to consider this nominal case for … I suggest that we call the absentees, it would be more regular. Have you been absent for a long time?
“Waiter: It’s been about a month.”
Biography of Jean-Paul Sartre, creator of the privacy
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre French writer and literary critic Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was born on June 21, 1905 in Paris to a bourgeois family. His father was a naval officer who died in the author’s childhood. He lost part of his vision during an illness as a child and had white spots on his eyes for the rest of his life.
At a young age, he began studying philosophy at the Superior School and graduated with honors. She became acquainted with Simone Dubois, an active writer and feminist at the time, and they began a friendly relationship.
In those years, Jean Sartre published a book on the theory of emotions. He went to Germany on a scholarship and continued his research in philosophy in Berlin. During this time he became increasingly acquainted with people such as Martin Heidegger, one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century.
Jean Sartre joined the Army in World War II and worked in the Army Meteorological Unit. He was a prisoner of war for a year at the time, and after his release he wrote his most important work, Existence and Non-Existence. He founded the New Age magazine at the time and published the book Existentialism after the end of the war.
He became known as an interpreter in the field of existentialism. In addition to writing books and his interest in philosophy and sociology, he was also interested in the political currents of communism and commented on various political events in the world.
Jean Sartre combined literature with philosophy and published his first philosophical story in 1938. The title of this book was “Nausea”, which made this author very famous. This book is the story of a young man who is depressed. These people find their freedom involved with inanimate objects and therefore suffer from nausea. The main character of this book pursues music and literature and spends his life writing.
This work is not just a simple story, but the story of a character who seeks immortality in isolation and distance from family and friends. Sometimes he suffers from emptiness and uselessness, and sometimes he pursues a purpose in life. “Nausea” is a reflection of the author’s existentialist thought, which is why this book is so valuable among works in this field. Jean Sartre himself considers this work to be one of his most important works, the value of this work can now be well understood because it is still on the list of best-selling books after about a hundred years.
Jean Sartre is known as one of the most famous and influential figures of the twentieth century, believing that man is condemned to freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1964 but refused to receive it.
Sartre lost his sight in the last years of his life and died on April 15, 1980 in a Paris hospital. He was a famous figure and his death was very sad. About 50,000 people attended his funeral, and one of his favorite newspapers ran the headline: “All one man, made of all men, and worth equal to all of them, and the value of each is equal to him.”
Jean-Paul Sartre, the world-famous author and creator of the privacy
Take a look at the works of Satter
The Wall is a collection of short stories by Jean Sartre, published in 1939. The series consists of five stories: “The Wall”, “The Room”, “Arostratus”, “Monast” and “The Employer Childhood”, whose main characters are similar in their tendency towards nihilism. This work is one of the first stories of this author that has been translated into Persian. Sadegh Hedayat, an Iranian writer and translator, has translated the story of “The Wall” and published it by Jamehdoran and Majid Publications.
“Flies” is another work by this author, published in 1943. This work is a play and is narrated in three scenes. The story of this play is classic and its characters are related to ancient Greece. The play is set in Argos, one of the ancient cities of Greece, around an axis of fifteen characters, and concepts such as the confrontations of love and hate, old and young, having and not having are the main themes of this narrative. This work has been translated into Persian by various translators, including Mehdi Roshanzadeh.
Jean Sartre’s trilogy of “Ways of Freedom” includes three well-known and timeless novels, “Age of Reason,” “Suspension,” and “Torture of the Soul.” This collection narrates the living conditions of the people during the French War, the first two titles of which were published in 1945 and the third title in 1949. “Suspension”, translated by Hossein Soleimani Nejad, describes the political-historical events of Europe in 1938.
“What is Literature” is another famous work of this author, which was published in 1948. This book is a research work on literature and art. This work is one of the most famous works written about literature, which has also been translated into Persian.
“Dirty Groups” is another play by this author that has been translated into Persian by “Jalal Al-Ahmad”, an Iranian writer and journalist. This work shows the organization and society that in order to enter it, all individual and non-partisan desires must be passed.
2- Introducing the book No Exit in Aparat