The Masnavi of the eternal work of Maulana Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi, in the term is a poem that is composed in one weight and in each verse there are two shutters with one rhyme.
Poets often express a wide range of topics and anecdotes and legends or historical events and mystical issues in this format.
Masnavi has existed in Persian poetry since ancient times, and we see this format in the first examples of Persian poetry, which is one of the poems of Masoudi Morozi’s Shahnameh.
The author of Tazkereh Haft Aseman says: And Masnavi is like a quatrain and a lyric from the inventions of Ajam that the Arab predecessors have learned from him and he called it a marriage. From the very beginning and from the very beginning of its compilation, Masnavi was recited in dance and listening ceremonies, and even during the life of Rumi and after that, a class called Masnavi singers emerged who recited Masnavi with a pleasant voice.
Flaki, who was one of these Masnavi readers, has referred to a number of contemporary Masnavi readers of Rumi and his son Sultan Valad.
Hence, Masnavi gradually took a special place in the ranks of Iranian traditional music, and thus Masnavi gained a place of performance in all Iranian songs and musical instruments, but some of them are more famous, such as Isfahan Masnavi. , Afshari, Bayat Turk, opposite three times and four times.
Masnavi is an educational book on mysticism, principles of Sufism, ethics, knowledge, etc. Rumi is best known for this noble book. Masnavi is a deep sea in which you can dive and find all kinds of spiritual gems.
Although valuable books such as Attar Neyshabouri, Mantiq al-Tair, Hadiqah al-Haqiqah Sanai and Golshan were the mysteries of Shabestari and were considered as the most important and profound mystical and Sufi books, but with the advent of Rumi’s Masnavi and comprehensiveness, elegance and narrow points And its diversity became less visible and was actually overshadowed by it.
Undoubtedly, the most brilliant work of Hussam al-Din was that he was able to take Rumi out of the world of pure passion and immersion with unparalleled merit and wisdom, and to make him obedient to the world so that his inner knowledge and experiences, which had reached the peak of maturity and goodness, would emerge. And become the beacon of the world of humanity, because the so-called scholars are fascinated in the state of passion as insane and insane, and can not arrest and guide.
Anyone who suffers from this condition is called a fascinated seeker. During his mania, Rumi was a fascinated seeker and did not pay attention to anyone and was unconscious and immersed. Fascinated seeker.
According to the narrations, when Hussam al-Din Chalabi observed that no poetic work containing the principles of mysticism and Sufism had appeared for Rumi’s companions, he asked Rumi’s service to make a textbook in the style and context of the Divine Letter or the logic of the bird. An education was put in order and Rumi immediately reached into his hand and took out a piece of paper containing the first eighteen verses of Masnavi and gave it to Hesamuddin.
Abd al-Rahman Jami narrates this incident as follows: Sheikh Farid al-Din Attar and received his tragedy letter.
He asked Rumi to serve if a book of poetry was written in the divine way or the logic of Sanai or Attar’s logic to remind his friends. The end is to be taken care of. Rumi now handed a piece of paper from his head and hand to Chalabi and wrote the first eighteen verses of Masnavi there. After that, Maulana always recited Masnavi.
In the state of listening, bathing, sitting, standing and sometimes from the beginning of the night until dawn, Hesamuddin wrote and wrote everything he had written once for Rumi. Rumi, who understood the role of Hessam al-Din in the creation of this good work and knew that it was his desire and thirst that revealed spiritual moments and spiritual reserves from the darkness of his conscience, hence the name of this great work in some of his poems Has entered.
Return from attracting Cho to Allameh
In the world, Hesami Battalion is a letter
Also, I mean the saddle of Masnavi, O Zia-ul-Haq, Hesamuddin Tui
I mean his words are your secret
I intend to compose your song
Rumi’s language has a special clarity in Masnavi. In fact, he spoke the language of the people. However, with all this clarity, most of the verses of Masnavi are difficult to understand the meaning, so much so that in his time, his companions and followers asked him the meaning of some verses of Masnavi and he explained them to them.
Rumi in Masnavi is like a skilled and sweet swimmer who, with agility, suddenly sinks into the depths of the water and the viewers look around and around the water with astonishment and attention and are careful when and where he comes out of the water.
But suddenly they see that he escaped from the water at a distance beyond their expectations and continues to float with full agility until the vast sea of meaning crosses and reaches the other shore.
In this way, the reader of Masnavi is always amazed and surprised by Rumi’s repeated points, so that he wants to acquaint his mind with a point.
“Masnavi is not a book that is a function of traditional chapters and a common format, but rather a function of the Qur’anic style and is based on association.”
He tells an anecdote to himself that anecdote requires the expression of a Sufi principle, while quoting a parable, which leads him to tell another anecdote. This story also brings to life a contemporary event in his mind.
Suddenly, another anecdote reminds him of the philosophical principle behind it. He goes back to the first story at once, but before ending it, he goes on to another discussion and from that discussion to another story, and a long time later, he returns to the first story for the second time and does not finish it.
Another thing is that the repetition of the contents in Masnavi is very common, but these repetitions have the form of repetition and do not mean repetition. Each of the recurring contents in Masnavi contains a new point and is also subject to the Qur’anic style in this regard. بینند.
The other is that the previous stories and anecdotes did not appear in dry and solid form in Masnavi, but their ingredients are soft like wax in the hands of the artist Mowlana and he shapes them according to his intention.
The other is that Masnavi has three types of audiences. General, specific and specific. Some verses of Masnavi are addressed to the general public. It is as if Rumi has appeared in the Majlis, preaching and giving speeches at the level of public understanding and the minds of the people. Such as advice and advice and everyone benefits from those words to the best of their ability. like the
This world is a mountain and our action is a call
The voices come to us
We ask God for the success of literature
He was rudely deprived of the grace of the Lord
In general, the appearance of stories, allegories and anecdotes is part of this type.
The second type has a specific audience. These are the things that Rumi has said in private with his warm-hearted companions and companions, but it is as if words come out of the door and window, and those who are sitting outside run and hear those words and hear what they have heard. They open the key to the unheard, and this group is divided into two groups.
One is the pure-hearted and the pious who realize the truth of Rumi’s secrets with his contemporaries, and the other group who do not have a pure and pious inner self, but become friends with the lonely out of suspicion, but do not find the secrets within them, but according to Rumi these are the words of mystics. They stole the pious to trap the naive.
And the third part has a special audience, which is a kind of hadith of the soul that Rumi has expressed in the state of passion and passion of love or in meditation and immersion.
Due to the enthusiasm of the disciples and finding out the meaning and purpose of Rumi in Masnavi, sometimes a bit of verse was questioned and he explained it. In this regard, it can be said that the first commentator of Masnavi was Rumi himself and in addition to the verses of Masnavi, he is his commentator.
His other works, especially Fiyeh Ma Fiyeh, are very similar to the meanings of Masnavi, and some verses can be explained with it and approached more clearly. If one of the disciples asks him what the verse means.
You are the same thought, brother
The rest is bone and root
Rumi says in his reply: “Do you mean that the same thought is a reference to that particular thought and we expressed it with thought, for development, but in fact it is not an idea and if there is, it is not a kind of thought that people Have understood. We meant it from the word thought.
Masnavi, known as Masnavi Manavi or Masnavi Rumi, is the name of a book of poetry by Maulana Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi, an Iranian poet and Sufi. This book consists of 26,000 verses and 6 books and is one of the best books of ancient Persian mystical literature and Persian wisdom after Islam.
This book is composed in the form of a Masnavi poem; Which is in fact the title of the book. Although before Rumi, other poets such as Sanai and Attar also used the poetic form of Masnavi, but Rumi’s Masnavi has a higher literary level.
In this book, 424 consecutive stories are told in the form of allegories of the difficulties of man on the way to reach God. The first eighteen verses of the first book of Masnavi Manavi are known as the letter and are summaries of the meaning of the six books.
This book was written at the request of Rumi’s student, Hesamuddin Hassan Chalabi, in the years 662 to 672 AH / 1260 AD. In this book, Rumi has collected a collection of ideas of Iranian-religious culture.
Books and stories are each created in a period and narrate a specific period of time. But some books are independent of time and place, created so that the world can enjoy them forever.
Stories that are more than 700 years old but are still readable and discoverable. One of these books is Masnavi Manavi by Javidan Maulana Jalaluddin, an Iranian poet and mystic.
Rumi likens his book to a flower that, although grown in the soil and water of Iran, but the scent of its perfume permeates the whole world.
Masnavi Manavi, mystical anecdotes
Rumi has written the spiritual Masnavi in 6 books and 26,000 verses. Rumi’s Masnavi is one of the best books of mystical literature that has been written in the form of Masnavi.
In this book, he has compiled a collection of instructive anecdotes based on Iranian and religious culture. The book was written at the request of one of Rumi’s students, Hesamuddin Hassan Chalabi, between 662 and 672 AH, in which Rumi wrote the poems and Chalabi wrote them.
Unfortunately, the sixth book of the book was left half-finished due to Rumi’s death, and its story has not been fully narrated.
Rumi said to his son about this: “Ashtar will lose his speech and someone else will come after me and tell the unspoken.” In the 11th century, as Rumi had said, “Sheikh Najibuddin Reza Tabrizi” composed the story of the third prince entitled “Authentic Citizens” and “Sheikh Alinaghi Astabanati” wrote it.
There was also a two-year delay in compiling “The Second Office” due to the isolation of “Hesamuddin Hassan Chalabi” due to the death of his wife or “Salahuddin Zarkub Qanooni”. Rumi has written the following poems about why he did not choose another scribe for himself during Rumi’s seclusion:
Sleep is awakening because it is with knowledge
Woe to the one who sat with the ignorant
Because the crows pitched their tents on the avalanche
The nightingales hid and bowed
Because without flowers, the nightingale is extinct
The absence of the sun is awakening
The theme of Masnavi is mystical spirituality and like other books of Sufis, anecdotes and allegories have been narrated from prophets, shepherds, kings, slaves and even animals to teach Sufism.
There are 424 different anecdotes in the book in no particular order, and a summary of the six books in the first 18 verses of the book is known as the “Letter.”
Rumi has been inspired by the Quran and hadiths to compose his poems. Quranic verses are evident throughout the book and more than 1,200 verses have been used in the verses.
Sometimes one, two or three words from the Qur’an are used in the stanza, and sometimes even a complete stanza is extracted from the text of the Qur’an (albeit with a slight change to maintain the weight of the Masnavi’s pronouns).
In some verses, without using Quranic words, the meanings of the verses have been used in composing the poem only as a hint. Since many verses of the book are taken from the Qur’an, Hakim Sabzevari has called the spiritual Masnavi a “psychic interpretation of the Qur’an.”
In addition, Rumi has used the narrations and hadiths of the infallible Imams, “Badi-ul-Zaman Forouzanfar” has categorized more than 700 verses of the book based on the hadiths.
Mysticism in the spiritual Masnavi
Rumi believed in the unity of existence and considered the whole world as a manifestation of God. He also believes that everything will return to God and his origin. In the following verses, Rumi has mentioned this issue:
The components are the procedures towards the whole
Nightingales make love with flowers
What goes from sea to sea
From there, the commode goes there
In Rumi’s thoughts, although all beings and the world are manifestations of God, in Rumi’s worldview, man is the great world and the world the small world.
According to Rumi, man is the most important creature on earth, but he is a strange and lonely creature. Man is unfamiliar with objects and Rumi has expressed this issue well in the opening verses of the first book of the “Letter”.
Rumi’s speech in Masnavi
The spiritual Masnavi has three categories of verses that are divided into general, specific and specific. “Common” poems contain anecdotes written for everyone and anyone can use them to the best of their ability. Most books contain such verses.
“Special” poems are mostly addressed to Rumi’s close companions and are difficult for the audience to understand. “Special” verses are very difficult and vague, based on the Qur’an or other themes, and many of them are still uninterpreted.
Not all verses of the spiritual Masnavi are mystical, and political and social themes can be seen in the book. These issues have also been narrated in the form of stories and anecdotes. Rumi, for example, cites a story from a Bedouin Arab who considers him to be influenced by kings.
Or in another story he criticizes the oppressive rulers and their mistakes.
Sheikh Baha’i composed this poem in praise of Rumi and the spiritual Masnavi:
I’m not saying that, Your Excellency
There is a prophet but he has a book
Rumi’s spiritual Masnavi
There is a Quran in Pahlavi words
Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi; God of Persian mysticism
Rumi, a Persian poet, nicknamed Rumi, was born in 604 in the city of Balkh and was buried in Konya in 672 AH.
His father was one of the great Sufis, a mystic and a follower of Imam Muhammad al-Ghazali. After the invasion of the Mongols and the reign of “Mohammad Khwarezmshah”, Maulana’s father moved to Konya and swore that he would never return to Balkh.
Rumi died when his father was 24 years old, and it was at this time that his father’s followers asked him to take his father’s place.
At the age of 37, Maulana was the jurist and scientist of the city until he met Shams Tabrizi. From then on, he became a disciple of “Shams” and left the lessons and the sermon assembly and engaged in poetry and listening:
I was ascetic, you sang a song
You hit my head on the ring and you searched for me
I was sitting on the rug with dignity
Due to the severe mental changes that Rumi had after meeting Shams, his disciples and followers insulted Shams and envied him.
This caused Shams to leave Rumi first for a short time and then forever. After leaving Shams, Rumi became very sad and angry. Rumi was the one who composed all his poems after meeting Shams and getting acquainted with him.
While Rumi was listening to the sound of Zarkuban in Hojran and Dori Shams in Zarkoban Bazaar, “Salahuddin Zarkob” also started listening to Rumi. After this, Rumi fell in love with Salahuddin and despite being illiterate, Rumi announced him as his successor.
Rumi’s life was broadcast in a series entitled “Jalaluddin” in 2014 on Channel 1 of the Islamic Republic of Iran TV.
2- Introducing the book in Aparat