Title: In Defense of Intellectuals

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Translator: Reza Seyed Hosseini

Publisher: Niloofar

Subject: Articles, speeches, intellectuals

Age category: Adult

Cover: Paperback

Number of pages: 146 p

Language: Farsi

Categories: ,


intellectuals is the result of Sartre’s three speeches in 1965 in Tokyo. Sartre examines the definition of the intellectual, his position and his duty. Sartre makes some interesting points about the intellectual, but his difficult writing, evident in his philosophical works, sometimes makes it difficult to understand.

An intellectual is a person who is concerned with human and social issues and therefore should be proficient in these areas. A physicist, a chemist, cannot be considered an intellectual as long as he limits his field of action to physics and chemistry.
Sartre writes: The characteristic of the intellectual is that he has no mission from anyone and has not taken his social status from any position .. Unlike doctors and teachers, etc .. that the ruling power with the previous decision to create them as its agents – is not the product of any previous decision, but the fruit of the strange creations of giant societies

Biography of Jean-Paul Sartre, author of the book intellectuals
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre French writer and literary critic Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was born on June 21, 1905 in Paris to a bourgeois family. His father was a naval officer who died in the author’s childhood.

He lost part of his vision during an illness as a child and had white spots on his eyes for the rest of his life. At a young age, he began studying philosophy at the Superior School and graduated with honors.

It was during this time that she met Simone Dubois, an active writer and feminist at the time, and they began a friendly relationship. In those years, Jean Sartre published a book on the theory of emotions. He went to Germany on a scholarship and continued his research in philosophy in Berlin. During this time he became increasingly acquainted with people such as Martin Heidegger, one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century.

Jean Sartre joined the Army in World War II and worked in the Army Meteorological Unit. He was a prisoner of war for a year at the time, and after his release he wrote his most important work, Existence and Non-Existence. He founded the New Age magazine at the time and published the book Existentialism after the end of the war.

He became known as an interpreter in the field of existentialism. In addition to writing books and his interest in philosophy and sociology, he was also interested in the political currents of communism and commented on various political events in the world.


Jean Sartre combined literature with philosophy and published his first philosophical story in 1938. The title of this book was “Nausea”, which made this author very famous.
This book is the story of a young man who is depressed. These people find their freedom involved with inanimate objects and therefore suffer from nausea. The main character of this book pursues music and literature and spends his life writing. This work is not just a simple story, but the story of a character who seeks immortality in isolation and distance from family and friends.

Sometimes he suffers from emptiness and uselessness, and sometimes he pursues a purpose in life. “Nausea” is a reflection of the author’s existentialist thought, which is why this book is so valuable among works in this field. Jean Sartre himself considers this work to be one of his most important works, the value of this work can now be well understood because it is still on the list of best-selling books after about a hundred years.

Jean Sartre is known as one of the most famous and influential figures of the twentieth century, believing that man is condemned to freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1964 but refused to receive it. Sartre lost his sight in the last years of his life and died on April 15, 1980 in a Paris hospital.
He was a famous figure and his death was very sad. About 50,000 people attended his funeral, and one of his favorite newspapers ran the headline: “All one man, made of all men, and worth equal to all of them, and the value of each is equal to him.”

World-famous author Jean-Paul Sartre

Take a look at the works of Satter
The Wall is a collection of short stories by Jean Sartre, published in 1939. The series consists of five stories: “The Wall”, “The Room”, “Arostratus”, “Monast” and “The Employer Childhood”, whose main characters are similar in their tendency towards nihilism. This work is one of the first stories of this author that has been translated into Persian. Sadegh Hedayat, an Iranian writer and translator, has translated the story of “The Wall” and published it by Jamehdoran and Majid Publications.

“Flies” is another work by this author, published in 1943. This work is a play and is narrated in three scenes. The story of this play is classic and its characters are related to ancient Greece.
The play is set in Argos, one of the ancient cities of Greece, around an axis of fifteen characters, and concepts such as the confrontations of love and hate, old and young, having and not having are the main themes of this narrative. This work has been translated into Persian by various translators, including Mehdi Roshanzadeh.


Jean Sartre’s trilogy of “Ways of Freedom” includes three well-known and timeless novels, “Age of Reason,” “Suspension,” and “Torture of the Soul.” This collection narrates the living conditions of the people during the French War, the first two titles of which were published in 1945 and the third title in 1949. “Suspension”, translated by Hossein Soleimani Nejad, describes the political-historical events of 1938 in Europe.

“What is Literature” is another famous work of this author, which was published in 1948. This book is a research work on literature and art. This work is one of the most famous works written about literature, which has also been translated into Persian.

“Dirty Groups” is another play by this author that has been translated into Persian by “Jalal Al-Ahmad”, an Iranian writer and journalist. This work shows the organization and society that in order to enter it, all individual and non-partisan desires must be passed.

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